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Date: 2019-10-21 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0700-MG-SDG-09

SDG GOAL 9
INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

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SDG GOAL 9 ... INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation


Goal 9. INNOVATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE ... Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation


Goals and targets
Indicators
9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all 9.1.1 Proportion of the rural population who live within 2 km of an all-season road
9.1.2 Passenger and freight volumes, by mode of transport
9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries 9.2.1 Manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP and per capita
9.2.2 Manufacturing employment as a proportion of total employment
9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets 9.3.1 Proportion of small-scale industries in total industry value added
9.3.2 Proportion of small-scale industries with a loan or line of credit
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities 9.4.1 CO2 emission per unit of value added
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending 9.5.1 Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP
9.5.2 Researchers (in full-time equivalent) per million inhabitants
9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 9.a.1 Total official international support (official development assistance plus other official flows) to infrastructure
9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities 9.b.1 Proportion of medium and high-tech industry value added in total value added
9.c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020 9.c.1 Proportion of population covered by a mobile network, by technology

INDICATORS / WORKING NOTES
Goal 06 ... Proposed Indicators 64 to 69
Potential and Illustrative Core Indicators

Indicator 64: Access to all-weather road (% access within [x] km distance to road)
Rationale and definition: Access to roads that are reliably passable year-round is critical for many rural development processes, including access to inputs, markets, education, and health services. This indicator tracks the share of population that lives within [x] km of roads that are reliably passable all-year round. Preferably such roads should be paved to ensure all-year access for heavy vehicles.131

Disaggregation: This indicator can be disaggregated spatially. Other opportunities to be reviewed.

Comments and limitations: This indicator is more ambitious than the alternate measure of access to ‘allseason’ roads, which are cheaper to construct and maintain.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: B

Potential lead agency or agencies: World Bank.

Indicator 65: Mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants by urban/rural
Rationale and definition: Broadband access is a key enabling technology that provides economic benefits (access to the formal economy, access to regional and global markets for local entrepreneurs, and access to banking services); health benefits (linking health workers to national health systems); and promotes citizen participation in government. It is projected that within a few years the majority of the world’s population, including in sub-Saharan Africa, will have access to mobile broadband. This indicator measures the number of broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. The Broadband Commission describes broadband as: (a) always on; (b) high-capacity connectivity; and (c) enabling combined provision of multiple services simultaneously.132 The ITU definition refers to access to data communications (e.g. the Internet) at broadband downstream speeds greater than or equal to 256 Kbit/s.

This indicator must be seen in conjunction with indicator 66.

Disaggregation: By sex. Other opportunities for disaggregation to be reviewed.

Comments and limitations: While this indicator provides a useful metric to monitor the uptake of mobile broadband technology, the data may include people having more than one mobile broadband subscription and can overestimate the percentage of the population with access to mobile broadband subscriptions.

This indicator will need to be flexible and adaptable to the pace of technological innovations. The technological landscape in 2020 will likely be very different to the current one and, perhaps then, mobile broadband subscriptions will no longer be a good reflection of the access to enabling ICTs.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: ITU.

131 Dobermann, A. and Nelson, R. et al., (2013).

132 From the core list of ICT indicators developed by the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, please see the report that was prepared for the forthcoming UN Statistical Commission meeting (Annex1): http://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/doc14/2014-8- ICT-E.pdf

Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 76

Indicator 66: [Index on ICT infrastructure performance]—indicator to be developed.
Rationale and definition: Information and communication technologies (ICT) and other advanced technologies are critical for economic development and achieving the other SDGs. We propose that an index be developed to track the quality and performance of countries’ ICT infrastructure.

The proposed index would measure three equally weighted dimensions of ICT infrastructure performance:

1. Fixed broadband quality: Measured as mean download speed (in kilobits per second), as established through user speed tests;

2. Mobile broadband quality: Measured as the proportion of download speed test measurements with download throughput of [1 megabit per second] or greater; and

3. International bandwidth capacity: Measured as bandwidth connected across international borders to metropolitan areas as of mid-year (expressed in megabit per second (mbps).

Each component of the index and the overall index could be normalized to values between 1 and 100.

Disaggregation: Opportunities for disaggregation to be reviewed once the indicator has been developed.

Comments and limitations: This indicator and indicator 61, which measures the urban and rural usage dimension of the ICT infrastructure, are strongly interlinked and must be reviewed together. Since ICT standards and associate usage evolve rapidly, any index for the quality of a country’s ICT infrastructure will need to be revised periodically – perhaps every five years. Access to data could be a limitation to developing in this index.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: To be determined.

Potential lead agency or agencies: ITU in collaboration with providers of the speed test and bandwidth data.

Indicator 67: Manufacturing value added (MVA) as percent of GDP
Rationale and definition: This indicator is a measure of manufacturing output as share of a country’s economy. Manufacturing is broadly defined as the “physical or chemical transformation of materials into new products,” regardless of the process (by machines or by hand), location (factory or home), or sale method (wholesale or retail).133 The value added is the net output of the manufacturing sector, calculated after adding up all the outputs and subtracting the intermediate inputs. It is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) revision 3, and calculated without deducting the depreciation of the fabricated assets, or the depletion and degradation of any natural resources.134 The indicator is expressed as a share of gross domestic product (GDP).

Disaggregation: Can be disaggregated by individual sectors (as per ISIC definitions).

Comments and limitations: To be determined.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: To be determined.

Potential lead agency or agencies: World Bank, OECD

133 See https://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=2

134 See World Bank data: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.IND.MANF.ZS

Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 77

Indicator 68: Researchers and technicians in R&D (per million people)
Rationale and definition: Technology development, diffusion, and adoption require trained staff engaged in R&D. This indicator measures the number of researchers and technicians engaged in research and development per million people. Countries may consider this indicator as a proxy for “technology workers”. Disaggregation: In some cases the data can be broken down further by the following sectors: government, business enterprise, higher education, and private non-profit.135

Comments and limitations: Data is available for some 140 countries, but significant challenge in need to be overcome to ensure that data becomes comparable across countries. The indicator only tracks workers in R&D and may need to be expended to cover researchers and technicians in high technology sectors.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: The OECD and the UNESCO Institute of Statistics.

Indicator 69: Total energy and industry-related GHG emissions by gas and sector, expressed as production and demand-based emissions (tCO2e)
Rationale and definition: This indicator tracks total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in ton of CO2 equivalent (tCO2e), broken down by gas (including CO2, N2O, CH4, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) and sector (including petroleum refining, electricity and heat production, manufacturing industries and construction, transport, commercial and residential buildings, fugitive emissions, as well as emissions from industrial processes) in line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 guidelines for the national GHG inventory,136 and the special chapters on energy137 and industry-related emissions.138

The UNFCCC collects GHG emissions data, estimated using a production-based (sometimes also referred to as territorial-based) accounting method. Under this approach, all emissions taking place “within national territory and offshore areas over which the country has jurisdiction” (as defined by IPCC 2006 guidelines for the national GHG inventory) are assigned to a country.

A complementary accounting method focuses on demand-based or consumption-based emissions. Under this approach emissions attributed to domestic final consumption and those caused by the production of its imports are attributed to a country.139 In other words GHG emissions for the importing country are augmented by the GHG content of the imports. Similarly, emissions for an exporting country are lowered.140Demand or consumption-based emissions are estimated using international input-output tables and therefore require a more complex methodology.

Disaggregation: By sectors and gas, as described above. The disaggregation by sector should – to the extent possible – be made consistent with systems of national accounts. It might be advisable to also report the data by International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities ISIC.

Comments and limitations: The use of production-based emissions accounting is well established and consistent with the definition of GDP. Yet, since it omits emissions embodied in international trade, there is a growing body of literature arguing in favor of a demand-based or consumption-based accounting of

135 See OECD stats database: http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=PERS_OCCUP 136 Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K., (eds.) (2006), 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. (5 volume collection), http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/index.html

137 Ibid, see volume 2 on Energy: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol2.html

138 Ibid, see volume 3 on Industrial Processes and Product Use: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol3.html

139 Peters, G. and Hertwich, E., (2008), Post-Kyoto greenhouse gas inventories: production versus consumption, Climatic Change, Volume 86, Issue 1-2, 51-66. 140 Boitier, B., (2012), CO2 emissions production-based accounting vs. consumption: Insights from the WIOD databases. Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 78 emissions. We therefore recommend that countries report their emissions using both production and demand-based measures.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: Countries’ data for this indicator are regularly submitted to United

Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The OECD can also report this data.

Additional indicators that countries may consider:

• Employment in industry (% of total employment): this indicator measures the share of employment in industry, including in mining, manufacturing, construction, and public utilities, as a share of total employment.

• Percentage of households with Internet, by type of service in rural areas. This indicator measures the percentage of households with Internet access by type (dial-up, DSL, etc.). Revised working draft (July 25, 2014)



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