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Date: 2019-08-18 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0700-MG-SDG-04

SDG GOAL 4
QUALITY EDUCATION
GOAL 4 ... Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

DIRECT NAVIGATION TO INDIVIDUAL WEBPAGE FOR EACH GOAL
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SDG GOAL 4 ... QUALITY EDUCATION
Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all


Goal 4. QUALITY EDUCATION ... ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Goals and targets
Indicators
4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes 4.1.1 Proportion of children and young people: (a) in grades 2/3; (b) at the end of primary; and (c) at the end of lower secondary achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in (i) reading and (ii) mathematics, by sex
4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education 4.2.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex
4.2.2 Participation rate in organized learning (one year before the official primary entry age), by sex
4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university 4.3.1 Participation rate of youth and adults in formal and non-formal education and training in the previous 12 months, by sex
4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship 4.4.1 Proportion of youth and adults with information and communications technology (ICT) skills, by type of skill
4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations 4.5.1 Parity indices (female/male, rural/urban, bottom/top wealth quintile and others such as disability status, indigenous peoples and conflictaffected, as data become available) for all education indicators on this list that can be disaggregated
4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy 4.6.1 Percentage of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, by sex
4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development 4.7.1 Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development, including gender equality and human rights, are mainstreamed at all levels in: (a) national education policies, (b) curricula, (c) teacher education and (d) student assessment
4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all 4.a.1 Proportion of schools with access to: (a) electricity; (b) the Internet for pedagogical purposes; (c) computers for pedagogical purposes; (d) adapted infrastructure and materials for students with disabilities; (e) basic drinking water; (f) singlesex basic sanitation facilities; and (g) basic handwashing facilities (as per the WASH indicator definitions)
4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries 4.b.1 Volume of official development assistance flows for scholarships by sector and type of study
4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States 4.c.1 Proportion of teachers in: (a) pre-primary; (b) primary; (c) lower secondary; and (d) upper secondary education who have received at least the minimum organized teacher training (e.g. pedagogical training) pre-service or in-service required for teaching at the relevant level in a given country

INDICATORS / WORKING NOTES
Goal 04 ... Proposed Indicators 35 to 41
Potential and Illustrative Core Indicators

Indicator 35: Percentage of children receiving at least one year of a quality pre-primary education program.
Rationale and definition: The indicator measures the percentage of children in the 36-59 months age group that are enrolled in an early childhood program. Programs can be defined fairly broadly ranging from private or community care, to formal pre-school programs.

This is an important indicator for measuring child development. Exposure to at least a year of high-quality pre-primary education has consistent and positive short-term and long-term effects on children’s development. In the short run, early cognitive skills, including reading and math skills, are positively affected by pre-primary education. In low- and middle-income countries, access to quality pre-primary education increases the share of students who enter primary school on time. High-quality preschool can produce lifelong benefits for society, with positive effects observed on years of completed schooling, secondary school completion, reduced crime, reduced early pregnancy, and increased earnings. These results encompass both small-scale demonstrations and large-scale programs, and are responsible for the impressive benefit-cost ratios for preschool (6 or larger, across high-, middle-, and low-income countries). Pre-primary education benefits all children, no matter their economic background, yet as with many other ECD services, those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds benefit the most.84

Disaggregation: By sex, location, and household income.

Comments and limitations: The indicator is less helpful in measuring the quality of pre-primary education care. Quality standards of structure (safety, access to clean water, small group sizes, etc.) and process (instructional and interactive skills of the teacher or caregiver) are important for children’s learning and development, but much harder to measure.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, World Bank.

Indicator 36: Early Child Development Index (ECDI)
Rationale and definition: Developmental potential in early childhood is measured as an index, currently represented in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) that assesses children aged 36-59 months in four domains: language/literacy, numeracy, physical, socio-emotional, and cognitive development. Each of these four domains is measured through instruments based on real-time observation. The MICS surveys calculate an overall Index Score as the percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are on track in at least three of the four domains.

Disaggregation: By sex and age.

Comments and limitations: Other measures of caregiver- or parent-reported young child development exist or are under development, including the Early Development Instrument and the Index of Early Human Capability, which incorporate items representing each of these domains and are being used across high-,

84 Myers, R., (1992), The twelve who survive: Strengthening Programmes of Early Childhood Development in the Third World, London, UK: Routledge.

Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 55

middle-, and low-income countries.85 Important complements to this form of measure are those assessments that can capture development in specific areas over time (e.g. growth in language or emotional skills).

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: B

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNICEF, UNESCO

Indicator 37: Primary completion rates for girls and boys
Rationale and definition: The indicator measures the percentage of children entering grade 1 who complete the last grade of primary school. Primary Completion measured by the Gross Intake Ratio to Last Grade of primary education is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education (according to the International Standard Classification of Education or ISCED97), regardless of age, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. Primary education is defined by ISCED97 as programs normally designed on a unit or project basis to give pupils a sound basic education in reading, writing and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other subjects such as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

The Gross Intake Ratio to Last Grade of primary reports on the current primary access to last grade, stemming from previous years’ of schooling and past education policies on entrance to primary education. It is a measure of first-time completion of primary education as it excludes pupils repeating the last grade. A high Gross Intake Ratio to Last Grade denotes a high degree of completion of primary education. As this calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the Gross Intake Ratio may exceed 100%, due to over-aged or under-aged pupils entering the last grade of primary school for the first time.86 Disaggregation: It is particularly important to disaggregate data for this indicator by sex, income, disability, region, and household income quintile, with particular attention to children in regions of conflict, since children in such regions are at greatest risk of dropping out of the schooling system.

Comments and limitations: Since the primary completion rate is typically a lagging rather than leading indicator, it will be important to find ways to strengthen regular and timely reporting of this indicator to measure progress.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNESCO.

Indicator 38: Percentage of girls and boys who master a broad range of foundational skills, including proficiency in reading and foundational skills in mathematics by the end of the primary school cycle (based on credibly established national benchmarks)
Rationale and definition: This indicator is designed to measure the proportion of children who are proficient in reading and comprehending text in their primary language of instruction and those that are able to, at the very least, count and understand core mathematical operations and concepts, as a proportion of total children at the end of the primary schooling cycle in the country. Proficiency will need to be defined at the national level, but should cover the ability to read, decode, comprehend and analyze text in their primary language of instruction. This is a new aggregate indicator proposed to ensure such proficiency can be

85 Janus, M. and Offord, D.R., (2007), Development and psychometric properties of the Early Development Instrument, Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 39, 1-22.

86 As defined by UNDESA for the MDG Indicators, available at http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Metadata.aspx

Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 56

captured, as can the learning of basic mathematical skills that are known to have strong links with future academic performance.

Disaggregation: By sex.

Comments and limitations: Since 2005, over 60 developing countries have used some measure of reading or have participated in internationally comparable assessments of reading comprehension. There are no internationally recognized standards for defining “proficiency in reading” primarily because of differences in language, curriculum design, and pedagogical approaches. However, it is recommended that each country adopts and/or defines a core set of standards that can be assessed either through school-based or household-based assessments. Several countries have national standards of foundational numeracy skills that are identified in national curricula frameworks. It is further recommended that each country adopts and/or defines foundational numeracy skills standards that, while being locally relevant, are referenced in some way to international benchmarks. It is particularly important that foundational numeracy skills are comparable to global standards since these skills are relevant across countries and can form the basis for future global competitiveness of the country’s labor force.

The need to have measures of reading and mathematical skills has been stressed by various global initiatives including the Learning Metrics Task Force (which recommends such skills be measured at grade 3).87 We recommend that such skills be measured at the end of the country’s primary school cycle to capture variations within and across education system structures in different countries.

This indicator should not be restricted to measurement of reading and mathematics; as countries develop comparable indicators for other domains of learning (physical wellbeing, social and emotional skills, culture and arts, literacy and communications, learning approaches and cognition, and science and technology), it is recommended that these indicators be tracked in a composite measure at the end of the primary school cycle. We support the ongoing efforts of the Learning Metrics Task Force to develop the indicators to track these areas globally. We also support ongoing efforts by the Task Force, UNESCO, UNICEF and other organizations in developing international benchmarks for these indicators, recognizing the variation of education systems and contexts across countries.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNESCO.

Indicator 39: Secondary completion rates for girls and boys
Rationale and definition: The indicator measures the percentage of girls and boys entering the first grade of secondary school who complete the last grade of secondary school. It is computed by dividing the total number of students in the last grade of secondary education school minus repeaters in that grade by the total number of children of official completing age. It captures dropout rates within secondary school as well as the transition rate between primary to secondary schooling by using as its denominator the total number of children of official completing age.

Secondary completion rates are important to measure since the dropout rates are highest in lower secondary grades. These are the ages when both the actual cost and the opportunity cost of education become higher, and when education systems struggle to provide high-quality instruction. There may be gender differences, as willingness to school girls is far more strongly determined by income and the broader costs of education than is the case for boys, and families are often unwilling to invest in the education of girls if this investment will not bring equivalent and direct economic gains to them and if girls continue to be valued only as wives and mothers.

87 UNESCO Institute for Statistics and the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, (2013), Toward Universal learning: Recommendations from the Learning Metrics Task Force.

Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 57

Disaggregation: It is particularly important to disaggregate this indicator by sex, income, disability, region, and separately for children in regions of conflict, since children in such regions are at greatest risk of dropping out of the schooling system.

Comments and limitations: Secondary completion rates are more difficult to compare across countries since the structure of schooling varies widely, and the relevant age groups differ accordingly. Secondary completion rates therefore can only be calculated on a national basis with reference to the number of years of schooling of that particular country. They are not easily comparable across countries.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNESCO.

Indicator 40: Percentage of girls and boys who achieve proficiency across a broad range of learning outcomes, including in mathematics by end of the lower secondary schooling cycle (based on credibly established national benchmarks)
Rationale and definition: The indicator measures the percentage of girls and boys at age 14 years who are “proficient” in broad learning outcomes, and at a minimum in reading and in mathematics. Proficiency will need to be defined through national level standards, but should cover the ability to read, decode, comprehend, and analyze text in the primary language of instruction, and to understand advanced mathematical concepts, reason, and resolve complex problems.

While the mathematics measure is easier to compare across countries, each country will need to identify its own set of standards for proficiency. It is recommended that there be a serious effort to benchmark national standards against comparable international standards where they exist. It is also recommended that this indicator be measured through either school-based or household-based assessments annually to track progress of the education system. The fundamental danger of skills-based indicators is that such indicators can only capture a small slice of the range of competencies that students are expected to acquire; assessing a subset can often focus education systems too exclusively on that subset, thereby leading to neglect of the broader set of competencies. This indicator is intended to measure the baseline or minimum set of skills expected of students at the end of the lower secondary schooling cycle. A broader indicator should be designed to ensure that other competencies are not neglected.

Disaggregation: Opportunities for disaggregation to be reviewed once the indicator has been defined. Comments and limitations: Proficiency standards do not exist systematically within countries; we recommend that countries identify/adopt a core set of standards that are designed with reference to global standards, where they exist.

Other international efforts such as the Learning Metrics Task Force, recommends measuring proficiency in mathematics, amongst others, at end of lower secondary. We support the ongoing efforts of the Learning Metrics Task Force to develop the indicators to track these areas globally. We also support ongoing efforts by the Task Force, UNESCO, UNICEF and other organizations in developing international benchmarks for these indicators, recognizing the variation of education systems and contexts across countries.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: B

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNESCO.

Revised working draft (July 25, 2014) 58

Indicator 41: Tertiary enrollment rates for women and men
Rationale and definition: The indicator measures the total enrollment in tertiary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving. Tertiary education is defined as per the International Standard Classification of Education (1997) levels 5 and 6.

Tertiary enrollment rates are indicative of the quality of the labor force in the country, and a wide gap between the tertiary enrollment rates and unemployment rates indicate either an inability of the economy to absorb its trained graduates, or the “employability” of the graduates which indicates a mismatch between the skills being imparted through the tertiary education system and the skills demanded by the market.

Disaggregation: By sex and by field of study (to track women in science, mathematics, engineering, sciences and technology).

Comments and limitations: Tertiary enrollment rates by themselves are not predictors of youth unemployment rates.

Preliminary assessment of current data availability by Friends of the Chair: A

Potential lead agency or agencies: UNESCO.

Additional indicators that countries may consider:

• Percentage of children under 5 experiencing responsive, stimulating parenting in safe environments. The MICS indicator measures the percentage of children below 5 years with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days.88

• Percentage of pupils enrolled in early childhood development programs providing basic drinking water, adequate sanitation, and adequate hygiene services. This indicator measures access to drinking water, gender separated sanitation facilities, and hand washing facilities in schools, using WHO-UNICEF JMP definitions.

• [Percentage of girls and boys who acquire skills and values needed for global citizenship and sustainable development (national benchmarks to be developed) by the end of lower secondary] – indicator to be developed. This indicator measures the percentage of children who acquire skills and values needed for them to be productive “global citizens”, recognizing that beyond basic academic work, there are values and skills that enable children to grow up to become socially responsible, emotionally mature, and productive members of society.

• Percentage of adolescents (15-19 years) with access to school-to-work programs. This indicator measures the percentage of adolescents who are offered programs that enable them to transition from school to employability and work, either through vocational or apprenticeship of training programs.

• Percentage of young adults (18-24 years) with access to a learning program. This indicator measures the percentage of young adult women and men that can enroll and learn a new skill or course to improve their knowledge, skills, and competencies.

• Proportion of young adults (18-24 years) who are literate. This indicator measures the proportion of young adult women and men that are literate as a proportion of the total population within that age group.

• [Indicator on supply of qualified teachers] - to be developed: this indicator will track the supply of qualified teachers.

88 See UNICEF webpage on ECD Indicators in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS): http://www.childinfo.org/ecd_indicators_mics.html



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