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Date: 2024-06-21 Page is: DBtxt003.php L0300-Marine-Pollution

Solid Waste in the Stomach of a Dead Sea Bird
Oil Fouling Animal Life after BP Gulf Oil Spill
The damage caused by the BP Gulf oil spill in 2010 was enormous, and much of it not solved with money. The oil industry has a track record of riding roughshod over environmental concerns, and the Gulf spill is one example that was easy to see.
Initiative: The Ocean Cleanup
Open L0500-The-Ocean-Cleanup

Marine Anthropogenic Litter
Reports of plastics in the marine environment began to appear in the early 1970s. At the time, Edward Carpenter of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution speculated that the problem was likely to get worse and that toxic, non-polymeric compounds in plastics known as plasticizers could be delivered to marine organisms as a potential effect. Carpenter’s speculations were correct and probably more so than he imagined. The quantity of plastics in ocean waters has increased enormously, and toxic plastic additives, as well as toxicants concentrated by plastics from the surrounding sea water, have been documented in many marine species
The complete book (462 pages)
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book
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Marine Anthropogenic Litter
Introduction / Brief History of the Research
Chapter 1 ... A Brief History of Marine Litter Research
Peter G. Ryan
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-01
Part I ... Abiotic Aspects of Marine ... Litter Pollution
Chapter 2 ... Global Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine Litter
François Galgani, Georg Hanke and Thomas Maes
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-02
Chapter 3 ... Persistence of Plastic Litter in the Oceans ...
Anthony L. Andrady
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-03
Part II ... Biological Implications of Marine Litter
Chapter 4 ... Deleterious Effects of Litter on Marine Life ...
Susanne Kühn, Elisa L. Bravo Rebolledo and Jan A. van Franeker
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-04
Chapter 5 ... The Complex Mixture, Fate and Toxicity of Chemicals Associated with Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment ...
Chelsea M. Rochman
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-05
Chapter 6 ... Marine Litter as Habitat and Dispersal Vector ...
Tim Kiessling, Lars Gutow and Martin Thiel
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-06
Part III ... Microplastics
Chapter 7 ... Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Sources, Consequences and Solutions ...
Richard C. Thompson
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-07
Chapter 8 ... Methodology Used for the Detection and Identification of Microplastics—A Critical Appraisal ...
Martin G.J. Löder and Gunnar Gerdts
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-08
Chapter 9 ... Sources and Pathways of Microplastics to Habitats ...
Mark A. Browne
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-09
Chapter 10 ... Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Distribution, Interactions and Effects ...
Amy Lusher
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-10
Chapter 11 ... Modeling the Role of Microplastics in Bioaccumulation of Organic Chemicals to Marine Aquatic Organisms. A Critical Review
Albert A. Koelmans
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-11
Chapter 12 ... Nanoplastics in the Aquatic Environment. Critical Review ...
Albert A. Koelmans, Ellen Besseling and Won J. Shim
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-12
Part IV ... Socio-economic Implications of Marine Anthropogenic Litter
Chapter 13 ... Micro- and Nano-plastics and Human Health ...
Tamara S. Galloway
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-13
Chapter 14 ... The Economics of Marine Litter ...
Stephanie Newman, Emma Watkins, Andrew Farmer, Patrick ten Brink and Jean-Pierre Schweitzer
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-14
Chapter 15 ... Regulation and Management of Marine Litter ...
Chung-Ling Chen
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-15
Chapter 16 ... The Contribution of Citizen Scientists to the Monitoring of Marine Litter ...
Valeria Hidalgo-Ruz and Martin Thiel
Open PDF ... Marine-Anthropogenic-Litter-Book-Ch-16
Brands wake up to tragedy of the oceans
By Angeli Mehta

Ethical Corporation Plastics Briefing 2017

Shocking images of marine life choking on plastic waste are finally moving companies to innovate on more sustainable packaging solutions. But can we kick a decades-old addiction? Plastics are indispensable to modern life, yet our careless discarding of them is choking our oceans and doing untold damage to marine life. And to ourselves.

According to the Ellen McArthur Foundation, 8 million tonnes of plastic a day is dumped into our oceans, and by 2050 there will be more plastic than fish by weight. Once in the ocean, plastic absorbs toxins and breaks down into tiny pieces, which find our way into our own food chain.

Only 20% of the 300 million tonnes a year of plastics produced is recycled.

As CDP’s recent Catalyst for Change report points out, plastics production is one of the chemical industry’s highest greenhouse gas emitting processes, and more than a quarter of plastics production is used for packaging. If plastics are to have a future we will need to be able to recycle them back into valuable products time and again, and we will need to find new ways to make them.

The shocking images of oceans awash with waste that will be floating around for hundreds of years are beginning to have an impact. As the CDP report’s authors ask: Is this going to be the ‘diesel moment’ for the plastics industry?

Earlier this month Andy Clarke, former boss of Asda, called on supermarkets to stop using plastic packaging altogether, and for the UK packaging industry and supermarkets to “work together to turn off the tap”.

Coca-Cola is estimated to make 110bn single-use plastic bottles every year, more than half of which don’t get recycled © WOLF WICHMANN / GREENPEACE

While energy recovery avoids the use of fossil fuels it can only be done once, and it still releases CO2 into the atmosphere, and potentially toxins too

Some brands are trying to engage consumers by putting recycled marine plastics into their packaging (see P&G’s recycling message in a bottle to consumers); they and others have pledged to expand their use of recycled materials, and make more, if not all, of their packaging recyclable.

Scale needed

Sky says it will ban all single-use plastics in its products, operations and supply chain by 2020. If followed through, such initiatives will cut both waste and the burgeoning carbon emissions from plastics production.

The scale is immense: consider CocaCola, which is estimated to make 110 billion single-use plastic bottles every year – more than half of which don’t get recycled.

Australian NGO Boomerang Alliance estimates that one-third of marine litter is drinks bottles.

Many promising technologies are emerging from start-ups, but development takes years and without investment it’s a struggle to get to scale. Without scale they can’t challenge the old order of petroleum-based plastics, which are now so cheap to make, thanks to rock-bottom oil prices.

Too valuable for landfill

Waste processors want to know there’s a guaranteed market for a recycling stream, and until enough material can be processed, that can’t be proven either.

Plastics are too valuable to be sent to landfill. The manufacturers’ association Plastics Europe calculated that if all plastics waste were to be diverted from landfill by 2025, an extra 5 million tonnes of plastic would be available for recycling every year. Plastics that couldn’t yet be recycled would be used for energy recovery. It estimates that this route would provide energy for 30 million people, and would save 70 million barrels of oil used in industrial processes, such as cement making. It also suggests up to 300,000 jobs would be created. Nine European countries have a landfill ban in place: recycling rates are a little higher there but more plastics waste gets burnt for energy than is recycled. While “energy recovery” avoids the use of fossil fuels it can only be done once, and it still releases CO2 into the atmosphere, and potentially toxins too.
‘I don’t know what we can do about the 1.5C rise in ocean temperatures, but we could do something about plastics right now’
In fact, a European Commission communication on energy to waste concluded that the practice is “inconsistent with more ambitious recycling targets”. What will make the difference? Perhaps policy is needed: but which carrots and which sticks will be effective? Charging for single-use plastic bags made a difference almost overnight.

Last month the Scottish government pledged to introduce a deposit-return scheme for bottles and cans, and more recently Defra has set up a working group to examine how such a scheme could run in England.

“We could look at metrics other than weight,” suggests Carlos Palafox-Ludlow, one of the founders of Enval, which recycles plastic aluminium laminates. “We could better channel investment if we looked at the carbon locked up, and [the energy] .... it took to produce the item in the first place.”

Consumers action needed

Tom Szaky, co-founder of Terracycle, the New Jersey company that made its name tackling hard-to-recycle materials, suggests subsidies could help recyclers compete. However, consumers need to play their part both by recycling and “choosing products that try to make a difference,” Szaky says.

The naturalist and filmmaker David Attenborough added his voice to the global call for urgent action earlier this month when he launched his second series of Blue Planet, which will feature distressing scenes of albatrosses spending weeks away from their chicks gathering food, and returning with bellies full of nothing but plastic.
“What we’re going to do about the 1.5C rise in the temperature of the ocean over the next 10 years, I don’t know,” he told one interviewer. “But we could actually do something about plastic right now.”
On the following pages, we look at the current state of innovation to tackle this issue and the challenges to scaling up new technologies to improve plastics recycling and make plastics from renewable materials.

Open PDF ... Ethical-Corporation-Plastics-Briefing

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