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Date: 2019-03-22 Page is: DBtxt001.php bk010000000


Burgess Manuscripts
New Wave for Development
Some Critical Reforms to Catalyze Socio-Economic Progress

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CONTENTS
Chapter Descriptions

Contents: Chapter List
  1. Chapter 1. Why this book?
  2. Chapter 2. Development has failed.
  3. Chapter 3. Why the failure?
  4. Chapter 4. There are ways forward!
  5. Chapter 5. Community Focus Development
  6. Chapter 6. Resources: Natural Resources
  7. Chapter 7. Resources: Human Resources ... People
  8. Chapter 8. Organizations
  9. Chapter 9. Enabling Environment
  10. Chapter 10. Community Productivity
  11. Chapter 11. The Information Dimension
  12. Chapter 12. Sector Perspective
  13. Chapter 13. Sectors: Governance ... Government
  14. Chapter 14. Sectors: Infrastructure
  15. Chapter 15. Sectors: Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
  16. Chapter 16. Sectors: Industrial Sector
  17. Chapter 17. Sectors: Trade and Logistics
  18. Chapter 18. Sectors: Service Sectors
  19. Chapter 19. A lot more issues ... afterword

Chapter Descriptions
Chapter 1 Why This Book?
This chapter answers some key questions. Why is this book being written? Why the writer can write this book? What the writer hopes to achieve? Development has failed ... time to make some changes. What sort of impact a changed paradigm shift will produce? These are important questions ... the book is a starting point.

Chapter 2 Development Has Failed
The failure of development is hidden ... possible because it is a long way from the mainstream media, and the leadership of society does not want data about the abysmal state of much of the world to be easily accessible and the basis for dialog and decision making.

Chapter 3 Why the Failure?
This chapter explains why there has been failure. The reasons are many ... but in part it is because both the objectives and the approach are wrong. Most of the explanations have been self serving, and the solutions rarely make much of a difference.

Chapter 4 There Are Ways Forward
There are ways forward ... not one, but many. A single silver bullet is not the right approach ... rather there needs to be a use of resources that gets the most value for the society as possible.

Chapter 5 Community Focus Development
In this chapter, it is argued that community is the best level of society to facilitate development. It is more effective than a single person, and has a scale that is optimum for progress because the interventions may be selected to address the important priorities of the community. The key metrics for development progress emerge from performance at the community level using Community Analytics.

Chapter 6 Resources: Natural Resources
What natural resources are available, and how can local natural resources be used as an economic driver for the area? What is the natural economic potential of the area? Are there other local resources that have economic potential? Natural resources rarely deliver economic value to the local community. Far too often they are exploited in ways that make them a local liability and a huge asset for remote stakeholders.

Chapter 7 Resources: Human Resources ... People
People are the key to everything. They are hidden potential and at the same time the limiting constraint. People are human, with all the problems that go along with that. What is the human potential? What is needed so that people can do the maximum that they are capable of?

Chapter 8 Organizations
What are the capabilities of existing organizations? What is needed so that they can do the maximum that they can do? What business organizations? What financial organizations? What professional organizations are there and what can they do? What community organizations? What faith based organizations and activities? How can people organize themselves in the best possible way so that they can progress. How can people organize so that they can best help themselves.

Chapter 9 Enabling Environment
What is the enabling environment? It is a lot more than just governance and government, the law and regulation? It is also the infrastructure and the social services like health and education, and the financial services. The enabling environment may also be a major constraint on the socio-economic progress of the community.

Chapter 10 Community Productivity
What is the underlying productivity of the community. If the community is surplus producing it can go forward and improve its quality of life ... otherwise it cannot. The concept is simple ... and explains the endemic economic and development failure that is pervasive on the planet.

Chapter 11 The Information Dimension
The focus is on management information more than anything else ... information that facilitates decision making, and with transparency enables accountability. The ideas for Community Analytics (CA) that is described here originated with corporate accountancy, and now embrace not only money profit but social value.


Chapters Related to Sectors
Chapter 12 Sector perspective
This chapter describes the importance of a multi-sector approach ... how a single sector initiative frequently fails because some other sector is not functional. This chapter also highlights the importance of sector specific technical capacity.

Chapter 13 Sectors: Governance ... government
This chapter expands on the many components of these sectors including:
• The legislative functions of government • The executive functions of government • The enforcement of law and order


Chapter 14 Sectors: Infrastructure
This chapter expands on the many components of these sectors including:
• Elements of the transport infrastructure • Elements of the communications infrastructure • Elements of the energy infrastructure • Elements of the housing and real estate infrastructure


Chapter 15 Sectors: Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
This chapter expands on the many components of these sectors including:
• Crop Agriculture • Livestock agriculture • Fisheries • Post harvest processing • Post harvest marketing


Chapter 16 Sectors: Industrial Sector
This chapter expands on the many components of these sectors including:
• Mining • Manufacturing • Construction • Tourism


Chapter 17 Sectors: Trade and Logistics
This chapter expands on the many components of these sectors including:
• Ocean and air shipping • Ports and airports • Warehousing • Internal rail and truck • Wholesale • Retail


Chapter 18 Sectors: Service Sectors
This chapter expands on the many components of these sectors including:
• Banking and insurance • Healthcare • Education



More Detail Chapter Information

Chapter 1 - Why this book?...................................................................................10
  • Why on earth this book?....................................................................................11
  • My background..................................................................................................12
  • Development has failed.....................................................................................16
  • Why and how development has failed .............................................................17
  • What needs to be done? ....................................................................................19
  • Time to make waves, time for change!.............................................................20


Chapter 2 - Development has Failed......................................................................22
  • Poverty, hunger, disease and death ...................................................................23
  • Failed development ..........................................................................................23
  • Hunger and famine (food, water and basic necessities)....................................25
  • War, insecurity and violence.............................................................................27
  • Poverty, economic value destruction and the distribution of wealth................30
  • Balance of trade, currency crises and government insolvency .........................32
  • Health pandemics .............................................................................................33
  • Conclusion: What a mess!.................................................................................34


Chapter 3 - Why the failure?..................................................................................34
  • Why “Why?” is Never Asked...........................................................................35
  • Because the answer is obscene.....................................................................35
  • What happens when why is asked?..............................................................36
  • The problem..................................................................................................36
  • Development performance ... a mess............................................................36
  • Why is development analysis so poor?.............................................................37
  • Incompetent analysis....................................................................................37
  • Good analysis is dangerous..........................................................................37
  • Too much an academic exercise...................................................................38
  • Highly aggregated reports.............................................................................38
  • No accountants in the mainstream................................................................38
  • Weakness in accounting...............................................................................39
  • No system.....................................................................................................40
  • No use of value analysis methodologies.......................................................41
  • No management information........................................................................41
  • No transparency ...........................................................................................41
  • No basis for accountability...........................................................................41
  • The US General Accountability Office........................................................42
  • Implementing arrangements..............................................................................42
  • Why do a few mega-NGOs dominate the aid fund flows?...........................43
  • Institutional constraints.....................................................................................45
  • Why so many bad decisions?............................................................................46
  • Colonial overhang........................................................................................46
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  • New Wave for Development
  • Wrong scale..................................................................................................47
  • A profit maximizing enterprise agenda ............................................................48
  • Lack of good governance..................................................................................51
  • Health ... HIV-AIDS and other killer diseases..................................................53
  • The Project Form of Implementation ...............................................................54
  • Where there is meant to be accounting.........................................................54
  • Project cycle.................................................................................................54
  • Where was the money disbursed?................................................................55
  • What was the money used for? ....................................................................55
  • Did the project produce value?.....................................................................55
  • What about information? ..................................................................................56


Chapter 4 - There are Ways Forward.....................................................................56
  • Is Success Possible ... Absolutely......................................................................57
  • The goal or purpose of development ...........................................................57
  • Priority List......................................................................58
  • People centric ... community centric ... development. .................................59
  • Resources – use what is available. ...............................................................59
  • Process ... activities ... value adding ... value destruction ............................59
  • Information...................................................................................................60
  • Huge challenge ... many possibilities................................................................60
  • Who is going to measure success?...............................................................60
  • Economic value destruction.........................................................................61
  • People ...............................................................................................................62
  • Affinity Organizations..................................................................................63
  • Failed Development .....................................................................................64
  • Time for Change ...............................................................................................64
  • Economic Productivity and Value Creation .....................................................64
  • ODA Organizations...........................................................................................65
  • Not a Single Silver Bullet..................................................................................66
  • Hundreds of Issues........................................................................................66
  • Analysis of Relief.............................................................67
  • Making sense of chaos..................................................................................67
  • Some of the issues........................................................................................67
  • Violence ... or Peace?........................................................................................68
  • How peace can be achieved .........................................................................68
  • Keeping the peace.........................................................................................68
  • The problem of inequity ..............................................................................68
  • Implementation – Activities..............................................................................69
  • Small is Beautiful.........................................................................................69
  • Lots of small initiatives ...............................................................................69
  • There is no one best way..............................................................................69
  • Getting Good Results When There is Chaos................................................70
  • Make best use ..............................................................................................71
  • Getting the Most for the Least......................................................................71
  • Measurement.....................................................................................................72
  • Make measurement ... do the accounting.....................................................72
  • Performance metrics ... cost and value.........................................................72
  • Benchmarks..................................................................................................73
  • Feedback............................................................................................................73
  • Without feedback ... there is no management...............................................73
  • Without improved activities ... there is no point..........................................73
  • Reasons for Optimism.......................................................................................74
  • Technology ..................................................................................................74
  • Human resources..........................................................................................74
  • Experience....................................................................................................74
  • Natural Resources.........................................................................................74
  • Professional sector .......................................................................................75
  • Enabling environment for foreign direct investment....................................75
  • Capacity for excellence in accounting and accountability............................75


Chapter 5 - Community Focus Development........................................................76
  • Focus on Community........................................................................................77
  • Community centric development .................................................................77
  • Community is for ever .................................................................................78
  • Development.................................................................................................78
  • Paying Attention to the Past.............................................79
  • Community Centric Planning ...........................................................................79
  • Planning with a community focus ...............................................................79
  • Gosplan does not work.................................................................................79
  • Community goal - quality of life..................................................................80
  • Components of community planning...........................................................80
  • Types of resources .......................................................................................80
  • People...........................................................................................................80
  • Organizational infrastructure........................................................................81
  • Physical infrastructure..................................................................................81
  • Natural resources .........................................................................................81
  • Materials and production equipment ...........................................................81
  • Financial resources.......................................................................................82
  • Know-how....................................................................................................82
  • Importance of Trust...........................................................................................83
  • Framework for Community Metrics..................................................................84
  • Corporate financial reports...........................................................................84
  • TVM community reports..............................................................................84
  • State of Community .....................................................................................84
  • Assets ... resources........................................................................................84
  • Liabilities ... constraints................................................................................85
  • What might be possible?..............................................................................85


Chapter 6 - The emerging wave of related initiatives............................................85
  • The P-CED Manifesto.............................................................................86
  • Principles of People-Centered Economics.....................................86
  • The P-CED Manifesto.............................................................................86
  • Principles of People-Centered Economics.....................................86
  • Productivity of Community...............................................................................89
  • Good place to optimize performance ...........................................................89
  • People................................................................................................................90
  • Communities ... Where People Live.............................................................90
  • Linkages............................................................................................................90
  • Modern economics.......................................................................................90
  • Linkages and community .............................................................................91
  • Linkages ... chaotic multi-sector dynamics...................................................91
  • Success with a multi-sector focus ................................................................91
  • The FAO Project in Shenge, Sierra Leone.......................92
  • Sectors...............................................................................................................93
  • Functions...........................................................................................................93
  • Organizations ...................................................................................................94
  • What is an organization?..............................................................................94
  • All sorts of organizations .............................................................................94
  • Community Governance ...................................................................................94
  • Community governance is organization.......................................................94
  • Business organizations.................................................................................95
  • Religious organizations ...............................................................................95
  • Self Help Groups (SHGs).............................................................................95
  • Health - hospitals and clinics........................................................................95
  • Education - schools.......................................................................................95
  • Telecenters....................................................................................................96
  • Water committees.........................................................................................96
  • People to people networks............................................................................96
  • Organizations for community security.........................................................96
  • Courts and a justice system .........................................................................96
  • Issues in the Community...................................................................................96
  • Hundreds of issues........................................................................................96
  • Do powerful people want community focus?...............................................97
  • Establishing priorities ... addressing the key issues......................................97
  • What is the best pace?..................................................................................97
  • What is the language?...................................................................................97
  • What is the culture?......................................................................................97
  • What is the religion?.....................................................................................98
  • What determines what?................................................................................98
  • Community Information....................................................................................98
  • Community information ... meta-data..........................................................98
  • Metrics of community progress ...................................................................98
  • What is a Profit?...............................................................99
  • Getting to know about a community .........................................................100
  • Village People Know About Their Communities..........100
  • Collecting community information ...........................................................100
  • Allocating Resources.......................................................................................102
  • Important Caveat........................................................................................102
  • Focal Point for Development – A Wrong Idea ..............102
  • A new coalition...........................................................................................102
  • Standard of Living and Quality of Life...........................................................103
  • Economic Security..........................................................................................103
  • The oil resource..........................................................................................103
  • The commercial economy ..........................................................................103
  • Employees .................................................................................................104
  • Vulnerable groups ......................................................................................104
  • From emergency to development ..............................................................104
  • Income generation and employment ..........................................................104
  • Vulnerable groups.......................................................................................104


Chapter 7 - Resources: Natural Resources...........................................................106
  • An Asset of the Community............................................................................107
  • Not so quick................................................................................................107
  • Not simply money.......................................................................................107
  • Making the best use of resources....................................................................108
  • Resources....................................................................................................108
  • Importance of local resources ...................................................................108
  • Resources are being wasted........................................................................109
  • What are resources used for?......................................................................109
  • Using resources for net value adding..........................................................110
  • Financial resources..........................................................................................111
  • Know-how.......................................................................................................111
  • Natural resources. ...........................................................................................112
  • Natural resources – badly utilized and depleting........................................112
  • Natural resources not well understood ......................................................112
  • Natural resources........................................................................................112
  • Energy – petroleum................................................................................113
  • Energy – coal.........................................................................................113
  • Energy – solar........................................................................................113
  • Energy – wind........................................................................................113
  • Energy – uranium...................................................................................113
  • Energy – hydro.......................................................................................113
  • Water......................................................................................................113
  • Lumber...................................................................................................113
  • Agricultural land....................................................................................113
  • Bio-resources – fauna............................................................................113
  • Bio-resources – flora..............................................................................113
  • Minerals – bauxite.................................................................................113
  • Minerals – iron ore.................................................................................113
  • Minerals – diamonds..............................................................................114
  • Minerals - gemstones.............................................................................114
  • Minerals – gold......................................................................................114
  • Minerals – copper..................................................................................114
  • Minerals – phosphate.............................................................................114
  • Energy.........................................................................................................114
  • Petroleum...............................................................................................114
  • Electricity...............................................................................................114
  • Fuelwood...............................................................................................114


Chapter 8 - People................................................................................................115
  • Make the very best use of people ...................................................................116
  • People - too many not doing much.............................................................117
  • Human resources........................................................................................121
  • Population demographics...........................................................................122
  • Population growth......................................................................................123
  • Building human capital...............................................................................124
  • Training .................................................................................................124
  • Brain drain ............................................................................................124
  • People ... reason for everything.......................................................................125
  • People centered development.....................................................................128
  • Put People at the Center of Everything..................................................128
  • People are the key engine for development...........................................128
  • People ... human resource......................................................................129
  • Rebuilding after World War II...............................................................129
  • Time for Change .............................................................................................129
  • The many dimensions of people.................................................................129
  • More Good People Than Bad People.........................................................130
  • The world is full of good people............................................................130
  • When good people meet bad systems....................................................130
  • Good people ... working hard ....................................................................130
  • How Should People Organize?...................................................................131
  • People organizations..............................................................................131
  • How does this get coordinated? ...........................................................131
  • Getting people organized - teamwork....................................................131
  • How everyone can help ... a little bit.....................................................131
  • Local folk can do a lot...........................................................................132
  • What Do People Need?...................................................................................133
  • Basic needs.................................................................................................133
  • People need opportunities...........................................................................133
  • People need health......................................................................................134
  • People need education ...............................................................................134
  • People need religion...................................................................................134


Chapter 9 - Organizations....................................................................................134
  • Organizations are a resource ..........................................................................135
  • Why America works?......................................................................................136
  • A new framework............................................................................................137
  • Getting people organized............................................................................138
  • People to people - the SOUTH is ready .....................................................138
  • Future role for existing ODA organizations...............................................139
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  • Chapter 26 Heading 1
  • Family dynamics.........................................................................................139
  • African families and communities .............................................................140
  • Learning organization.................................................................................140
  • The Spirit of Africa ...................................................................................140
  • People get organized.......................................................................................141
  • Life is local......................................................................................................141
  • Affinity Organizations................................................................................142
  • Religious communities in Africa................................................................142
  • Organization....................................................................................................143
  • Organizational infrastructure......................................................................143
  • Organizational infrastructure......................................................................144
  • Organizational infrastructure......................................................................145
  • Organization and Organizations.................................................................146
  • Organizing, organization and organizations...............................................146
  • A critical determinant of success................................................................147
  • Community.................................................................................................147
  • Business organizations...............................................................................147
  • Governance organizations..........................................................................147
  • At the National Level.................................................................................148
  • The organizations of government .........................................................148
  • Government ministries...........................................................................148
  • Area organizations......................................................................................148
  • The oil sector..............................................................................................148
  • Big contractors............................................................................................149
  • Health sector...............................................................................................149
  • Education ...................................................................................................149
  • At the Supra-National Level.......................................................................149
  • The global corporation ..........................................................................149
  • The oil industry giants...........................................................................149
  • Banks and financial institutions.............................................................150
  • Drugs, arms and human trafficking............................................................150
  • Production infrastructure.................................................................................150
  • Production facilities....................................................................................150
  • Source of wealth..............................................................................................151
  • Production materials and equipment..........................................................151
  • Working capital..........................................................................................151
  • Middlemen and traders...............................................................................152


Chapter 10 - Enabling Environment and Governance.........................................154
  • A lot goes into this..........................................................................................155
  • Governance......................................................................................................155
  • Subsidy.......................................................................................................155
  • Governance .....................................................................................................156
  • System and processes.................................................................................156
  • Administrative capacity..............................................................................156
  • Technical planning.....................................................................................156
  • Planning and budgeting .............................................................................156
  • Policy framework ......................................................................................157
  • Training staff..............................................................................................157
  • Upgrading available equipment .................................................................157
  • Governance and administration sector.......................................................157
  • Government Accounting ............................................................................158
  • A basic system of governance................................................................158
  • Government accounting .......................................................................158
  • Planning and budget process..................................................................158
  • Budget execution...................................................................................158
  • Reporting...............................................................................................158
  • Audit......................................................................................................158
  • Weakness...............................................................................................158
  • System and process improvement .........................................................159
  • Government Revenue and Public Finance..................................................159
  • Sources of government revenue ............................................................159
  • Government borrowing .........................................................................159
  • Grant finance .........................................................................................159
  • Improving government revenue base ....................................................159
  • Customs, export taxes and port fees .....................................................159
  • Creating a formal public finance capability ..........................................159
  • Establishing a development fund ..........................................................159
  • Public finance .......................................................................................159
  • Pay scales in the civil service ................................................................160
  • Policy Framework.......................................................................................160
  • Huge need for critical controls...............................................................160
  • Natural resource policy framework .......................................................160
  • Corporate wealth policy framework .....................................................160
  • Military.......................................................................................................161
  • National defense and emergency assistance..........................................161
  • National politics.....................................................................................161
  • US military in Iraq.................................................................................161
  • The Iraq military....................................................................................161
  • The difference between the military and the police...............................161
  • Demobilized soldiers.............................................................................162
  • Police..........................................................................................................162
  • Police ....................................................................................................162
  • Community police..................................................................................163
  • National police.......................................................................................163
  • Local and national police in combination..............................................163
  • Handling sectarian violence...................................................................163
  • Gun control ...........................................................................................163
  • Preventing police abuse.........................................................................164
  • Judicial System...........................................................................................164
  • Legal and justice system MUST be functional......................................164
  • Customary Law .....................................................................................164
  • Prisons........................................................................................................166
  • A prison service.....................................................................................166
  • Handling violent offenders....................................................................166
  • Handling petty crime..............................................................................166
  • Prisons ..................................................................................................166


Chapter 11 - Infrastructure...................................................................................167
  • Physical Infrastructure.....................................................................................168
  • The Centrality of Infrastructure..................................................................168
  • Determinant of productivity .................................................................168
  • Transport infrastructure – Roads................................................................169
  • Main roads.............................................................................................169
  • Community roads...................................................................................169
  • Road infrastructure condition ...............................................................169
  • Railways.....................................................................................................171
  • Seaports......................................................................................................171
  • Airports.......................................................................................................171
  • Energy infrastructure..................................................................................172
  • Construction Strategy......................................................................................172
  • Housing...........................................................................................................173
  • Urban housing ...........................................................................................173
  • Capacity to build houses ............................................................................173
  • House construction is employment ............................................................173
  • Strengthening the capacity to build houses ...............................................173
  • Housing sector............................................................................................173
  • Construction and maintenance ..................................................................173
  • Employment ...............................................................................................174
  • Telecom and Internet..................................................................................174
  • Telecom.................................................................................................174
  • Internet...................................................................................................174
  • Water..........................................................................................................174
  • Importance of water ..............................................................................174
  • Knowledge about water ........................................................................174
  • Competing demands for water ..............................................................175
  • Sources of water.....................................................................................175
  • Quality of water.....................................................................................175
  • Community water sources and water storage........................................175
  • Urban water systems..............................................................................175
  • Plans for water supply improvement ....................................................176


Chapter 12 - Health..............................................................................................177
  • Social Services: ................................................................................179
  • Healthcare.........................................................................................179


Chapter 13 - Education........................................................................................180
  • Social Services: Education..............................................................................181


Chapter 14 - Money and Banking........................................................................182
  • Economic Services: Financial Services ..........................................................183
  • Financial services.......................................................................................183
  • Money: Not enough of it!................................................................................183
  • Microfinance...............................................................................................183
  • Money ........................................................................................................183
  • Capital markets................................................................................................184
  • Public Finance in Africa.............................................................................185
  • Money is Important.....................................................................................186
  • Money ... should not be a gift.....................................................................187
  • Requirements for Money.................................................................................187
  • Many needs.................................................................................................187
  • Financing development initiatives..............................................................187
  • Financing infrastructure..............................................................................187
  • Control of the Money.................................................................................188
  • Secret systems for money control ..............................................................188
  • Accounting for fund flows..........................................................................188
  • Check the spending ....................................................................................189
  • Micro-Credit ... for the Individual...................................................................189
  • Financing for the individual.......................................................................189
  • Community micro-credit........................................................................190
  • Funded from the development fund ...........................................................190
  • Mini-Credit ... for the Business.......................................................................190
  • Financing the small and medium scale enterprise .....................................190
  • Muni-Credit ... for the Community.................................................................191
  • The municipal finance equivalent...............................................................191
  • Organization ... at the Community Level........................................................192
  • Funding community activities....................................................................192
  • Many short term small loans .....................................................................192
  • Fully commercial basis ..............................................................................192
  • Central Bank and Government Treasury.........................................................193
  • The purpose of a Central Bank ..................................................................193
  • The purpose of the Government Treasury..................................................193
  • Informing the Public .................................................................................194
  • Investment Fund for Future Generations.........................................................194
  • A mechanism to invest for the future.........................................................194
  • Third World Debt............................................................................................194
  • The Jubilee Movement...............................................................................194
  • The debt crisis.............................................................................................194
  • Foreign Direct Investment – Is it really a good thing. ...............................195
  • Stakeholders...............................................................................................196
  • Avoiding scams..........................................................................................198
  • Historical Note............................................................................................201
  • Public finance as constraint on development..................................................201
  • The situation around independence ...........................................................201
  • Aggravated in the 1970s.............................................................................202
  • Made worse in the 1980s............................................................................202
  • Even worse in the 1990s.............................................................................202
  • Public finance for development..................................................................203
  • International competition............................................................................204
  • Export driven development........................................................................204
  • An alternative to export driven development.............................................204
  • Politics not markets determine priorities....................................................204
  • Currency issues...........................................................................................204
  • Multilateral financial institutions...............................................................205


Chapter 15 - Community Productivity.................................................................205

  • Activities ... process........................................................................................206
  • Systems approach............................................................................................206
  • About Implementation.....................................................................................207
  • Not the usual model....................................................................................207
  • Problems with process................................................................................207
  • Enabling Environment ...............................................................................208
  • Iraq has potential to be a good business environment...........................208
  • Improve infrastructure and services............................................................208
  • Institutional constraints..............................................................................208
  • Economic Linkages and Surplus Production..............................................209
  • Surplus production (from 1987).................................................................210
  • Process.............................................................................................................212
  • Structure..........................................................................................................212
  • Structure can be anything...........................................................................212
  • Informal initiative and formal entities........................................................212
  • Projects.......................................................................................................213
  • Oversight ... accountability to the public ...................................................213
  • Reaching the community............................................................................213
  • Getting the Facts..............................................................................................213
  • Getting the facts ... getting reliable facts....................................................213
  • Some facts ... not all the facts.....................................................................214
  • More information about more things..........................................................214
  • Planning a Strategy..........................................................................................214
  • Planning with a lighter touch .....................................................................214
  • More than anything else ... the American way...........................................214
  • Planning ... how this is to be done..............................................................215
  • Planning Activities..........................................................................................215
  • Distributed planning...................................................................................215
  • Mobilizing Resources......................................................................................216
  • Getting funds for priority activities............................................................216
  • The unusual situation in Iraq......................................................................217
  • Structure for Managing...................................................................................217
  • Management structure................................................................................217
  • Caveat.........................................................................................................218
  • Local experts and consultants ....................................................................218
  • Information should be easy and drive decisions.........................................218
  • Nothing here is new ...................................................................................218
  • Mobilizing Data ... Getting Started.................................................................218
  • Getting data should be easy........................................................................218
  • Data for management information..............................................................218
  • Organizing the data.........................................................................................219
  • Validating the data......................................................................................219
  • Unwillingness to share data........................................................................219
  • Planning ... As a Management Function.....................................................220
  • Not Gosplan ... something different.......................................................220
  • Planning with a community focus .........................................................220
  • Components of planning........................................................................220
  • Coordination, optimization, assistance .................................................221
  • Accounts ... Accounting..................................................................................221
  • Good accounts ... strong accounting...........................................................221
  • Accounting for implementation activities..................................................221
  • Control of money........................................................................................221
  • Control of inventory...................................................................................222
  • Control of all the other assets ... and liabilities..........................................222
  • Internal control ... internal check................................................................223
  • Budget ... Budgeting........................................................................................223
  • Good management tool...............................................................................223
  • Authority to spend......................................................................................223
  • Budget more of a benchmark......................................................................223
  • Measurement of Performance.........................................................................224
  • Basics .........................................................................................................224
  • Early rapid measurement of progress ........................................................224
  • Benchmarks................................................................................................224
  • Monitoring and Evaluation..............................................................................224
  • Beyond traditional monitoring and evaluation ..........................................224
  • Oversight.........................................................................................................225
  • A critical way of maintaining performance................................................225
  • Transparency...................................................................................................226
  • The prevalence of secrecy ..........................................................................226
  • Transparency ... accounting to society .......................................................226
  • The privacy of accounting..........................................................................226
  • Accountability.................................................................................................226
  • Accountability to whom?...........................................................................226
  • Internal accountability................................................................................227
  • External accountability...............................................................................227
  • Human Resources............................................................................................227
  • People are central to everything.................................................................227
  • Audit................................................................................................................228
  • Overview....................................................................................................228
  • Internal audit ..............................................................................................228
  • Independent certification............................................................................228
  • Process.............................................................................................................229
  • Plan.............................................................................................................229
  • Organize.....................................................................................................230
  • Implement...................................................................................................230
  • Measure......................................................................................................231
  • Feedback.....................................................................................................231
  • Economic value adding ..................................................................................232


Chapter 16 - The Information Dimension............................................................236
  • Information......................................................................................................237
  • Accountability.................................................................................................238
  • Independent, neutral data................................................................................239
  • An independent entity should run the information system.........................239
  • Management information...........................................................................240
  • What is management information?.............................................................240
  • The value of management information.......................................................240
  • Good for planning ......................................................................................240
  • Good for monitoring performance..............................................................241
  • Good for identifying improvement opportunity.........................................241
  • Good for oversight......................................................................................241
  • Good for coordination ...............................................................................241
  • Good for monitoring and evaluation..........................................................241
  • Accounting Information..................................................................................242
  • Accounting provides a lot of information...................................................242
  • More analytical information can easily be obtained...................................242
  • But what about value?................................................................................242
  • Performance Information................................................................................242
  • Some of the best metrics are the simplest..................................................242
  • Cost, price and value..................................................................................243
  • Performance comparisons...........................................................................243
  • Accounting provides a lot of performance information.............................244
  • Other source of data and analysis...............................................................244
  • Bottom of the pyramid................................................................................244
  • Socio-Economic Statistics...............................................................................244
  • Accounting rarely uses statistics.................................................................244
  • Massive amount of socio-economic data....................................................245
  • Massive amount of writing ... rather less numbering.................................245
  • Collection of Information................................................................................245
  • Getting facts ought to be easy.....................................................................245
  • Nothing here is new ...................................................................................245
  • Maybe a lot of information has been collected ..........................................245
  • High cost to collect, low value unless used................................................246
  • Think value management............................................................................246
  • Small samples and statistics is not accounting...........................................246
  • Data Design – MetaData.................................................................................246
  • Organize the data .......................................................................................246
  • Incredibly badly organized ........................................................................247
  • Need for database design improvement......................................................247
  • Use database technology ............................................................................247
  • Data Quality and Reliability............................................................................247
  • Problem of misinformation ........................................................................247
  • Use peer review to reduce bad information ...............................................248
  • Use the data ... they get better.....................................................................248
  • Easy Access to Important Information............................................................248
  • Secrecy ... hiding corruption and inefficiency............................................248
  • Reports ... report design..............................................................................248
  • Repositories to facilitate easy access .........................................................248
  • MetaData ... and organizing data................................................................249
  • Academic Community.....................................................................................249
  • The academic community and information................................................249
  • The academic community has a key role to play........................................249
  • Communications ............................................................................................249
  • Information for fund raising ...........................................................................250
  • Implementing - Management Information .....................................................250
  • Open access to information........................................................................250
  • Performance measurement ... value adding.....................................................250
  • Accounting and accountability........................................................................251
  • Community information..................................................................................251
  • Accessible information...............................................................................252
  • Information ... Intelligence.........................................................................252
  • Missing Management Information..................................................................253
  • Missing in Action.......................................................................................253
  • VERY IMPORT … TO BE DONE.......................................................253
  • Lots of Data ... Not Much Information............................................................253
  • Economic data, not financial......................................................................253
  • Why is so much data compiled?......................................................................254
  • And yet a paucity of useful information ....................................................254
  • Accounting.................................................................................................255
  • UNDP information going backwards..............................................................256
  • OECD DAC Reporting...............................................................................257
  • Reporting in the ODA world........................................................257
  • Who wants good accounting?.........................................................................258
  • Who understands accounting?.........................................................................258
  • Knowledge......................................................................................................259
  • Technical knowhow and local knowledge .................................................260
  • Knowledge..................................................................................................260
  • Constraining the communication of knowledge ........................................260
  • The Free Public Library .............................................................................260
  • Indigenous knowledge ...............................................................................261
  • Intellectual property....................................................................................261
  • Language.....................................................................................................261
  • Knowledge is foundation for maximizing potential ..................................262
  • Accounting and accountability...................................................................262
  • Good people are writing..................................................................................268
  • Facts and fiction.........................................................................................268
  • The HIV-AIDS health pandemic................................................................269
  • What on earth to do with the AIDS crisis...................................................272
  • Advocacy...............................................................................................272


Chapter 17 - Sector Perspective...........................................................................279
The Sector Perspective....................................................................................280 Sector expertise ... specialization...............................................................280 Hundreds of sectors and sub-sectors..........................................................280 Overview listing of main sectors................................................................281 Multi-sector mix..............................................................................................284 Linkages between sectors .........................................................................284 Multi-Sector Linkage.....................................................284 Table: Inter-Sector Linkages.............................................................285 I ... Government and social sectors................................285 GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL SECTORS................285 II ... Infrastructure...........................................................286 INFRASTRUCTURE.....................................................286 III ... Income generation and employment......................286 INCOME GENERATION AND EMPLOYMENT.......286 Different Sector Views....................................................................................288 Public and Private Sectors..........................................................................288 Private sector..........................................................................................288 Public sector...........................................................................................288 Enterprise Sector ... Employment....................................................................288 Enterprise sector ........................................................................................288 Employment ...............................................................................................288 Formal and Informal Sectors...........................................................................289 Formal Sectors............................................................................................289 Informal Sector ..........................................................................................289 Productive and Social Sectors.........................................................................289 Productive sectors.......................................................................................289 Social sectors..............................................................................................290 Relief and Development Sector.......................................................................290 Humanitarian relief TO DO........................................................................290 Official Development Assistance (ODA) ..................................................290 Luxury Sector..................................................................................................291 A very profitable sector..............................................................................291 Agriculture, fisheries and food........................................................................291 Infrastructure...................................................................................................291 Industrial sectors.............................................................................................292 Energy - Oil and Gas.......................................................................................292 Minerals and Mining.......................................................................................292 Summary overview ....................................................................................292 Policy about mineral resource exploitation................................................293 Training in mining skills ...........................................................................293 Manufacturing.................................................................................................293 The state of manufacturing.........................................................................293 My Experience in Madagascar.......................................293 Banking and Financial Services......................................................................294 An important sector for success .................................................................294 Community needs.......................................................................................294 Commercial banking for enterprise ...........................................................294 Informal systems for financial services......................................................294 Public finance.............................................................................................295 Communications.............................................................................................295 Telephone ..................................................................................................295 Internet ......................................................................................................295 Private sector ............................................................................................295 Logistical Services..........................................................................................295 Transport.....................................................................................................295 Truck fleets ................................................................................................295 Air transport ...............................................................................................296 Airport fuel and service..............................................................................296 Port operations ...........................................................................................296 Pipelines.....................................................................................................296 Warehouses ................................................................................................296 Maintenance....................................................................................................296 Repair shops, welding and machine shops.................................................296 Access to training ......................................................................................296 Media...............................................................................................................297 Radio and Television..................................................................................297 Print media .................................................................................................297 New media ... Internet................................................................................297 Professional Sector..........................................................................................297 Professional sector situation.......................................................................297 Tourism...........................................................................................................298 High economic value..................................................................................298 Hotels, restaurants and entertainment.........................................................299 Trade................................................................................................................299 International trade ......................................................................................299 Wholesale trade..........................................................................................299 Retail sector................................................................................................300 Informal trade ............................................................................................300 An important sector for income generation ...............................................301 Regulations ... some are needed, most are not............................................301 Education.........................................................................................................301 Education sector.........................................................................................301 Educational policy......................................................................................301 Under-served areas.....................................................................................302 Curriculum and text books ........................................................................302 Teachers .....................................................................................................302 Planning and management .........................................................................302 Women and girls ........................................................................................302 Skills training .............................................................................................302 Employment of jobs....................................................................................303 Health .............................................................................................................303 Health situation ..........................................................................................303 Rehabilitation of health sector ...................................................................303 Education and training................................................................................303 Mother and child health programs .............................................................304 Mental health..............................................................................................304 The Sectors … A Sector View........................................................................305 Multi-sector linkage....................................................................................305 More on Sectors..............................................................................................306 More ... but Still Not Much........................................................................306 Introduction ...............................................................................................306 Academic sector.........................................................................................306 Agriculture sector.......................................................................................306 Banking and finance sector.........................................................................306 Construction...............................................................................................307 Education sector.........................................................................................308 Employment or jobs....................................................................................308 Energy sector..............................................................................................309 Enterprise sector ........................................................................................310 Fisheries sector...........................................................................................310 Governance and administration sector.......................................................310 Health sector...............................................................................................312 Housing sector............................................................................................312 Infrastructure sector....................................................................................313 International trade sector............................................................................314 Legal and justice.........................................................................................315 Luxury sector..............................................................................................316 Manufacturing............................................................................................317 Military and security sector........................................................................318 Mining sector..............................................................................................319 Natural resources........................................................................................319 Productive sectors.......................................................................................320 Professional sector......................................................................................320 Public sector, private sector........................................................................321 Relief and development sector ..................................................................321 Retail sector................................................................................................321 PB-New-Wave-for-Development-110102b.odt Page 427 Printed on Nov 29, 2015at 10:56 PM New Wave for Development Social sectors..............................................................................................322 Tourism sector............................................................................................322 Transport.....................................................................................................323 Wholesale sector.........................................................................................324 Dozens of Sectors............................................................................................325 Types of Sectors.........................................................................................325 Various Types of Sector.............................................................................325 Hundreds of Sectors and Sub-Sectors........................................................325 Characteristics of sector..............................................................................326 Sector expertise..........................................................................................326 Public and Private Sectors...............................................................................326 Private sector..............................................................................................326 Public sector...............................................................................................327 Enterprise Sector ... Employment....................................................................327 Enterprise sector ........................................................................................327 Employment ...............................................................................................327 Formal and Informal Sectors...........................................................................328 Formal Sectors............................................................................................328 Informal Sector ..........................................................................................328 Productive and Social Sectors.........................................................................328 Productive sectors.......................................................................................328 Social sectors..............................................................................................328 Relief and Development Sector.......................................................................329 There should be clarity … but there is not.................................................329 Humanitarian relief ....................................................................................329 Development sector ...................................................................................329 Luxury Sector..................................................................................................330 A very profitable sector..............................................................................330 Chapter 18 - Sectors: Governance - Government................................................330 Policy Administration.....................................................................................331 System and processes.................................................................................331 Administrative capacity..............................................................................331 Technical planning.....................................................................................331 Planning and budgeting .............................................................................332 Policy framework ......................................................................................332 Training staff..............................................................................................332 Upgrading available equipment .................................................................332 Governance and administration sector.......................................................332 Government Accounting.................................................................................333 A basic system of governance....................................................................333 Government accounting ............................................................................333 Planning and budget process......................................................................333 Budget execution........................................................................................333 Reporting....................................................................................................333 Audit...........................................................................................................333 Weakness....................................................................................................334 System and process improvement .............................................................334 Public Finance.................................................................................................334 Government Revenues ...............................................................................334 Sources of government revenue ............................................................334 Improving government revenue base ....................................................334 Customs, export taxes and port fees .....................................................334 Public Debt......................................................................................................335 Government borrowing ..............................................................................335 Grant finance .............................................................................................335 Creating a formal public finance capability ...............................................335 Establishing a development fund ...............................................................335 Public finance ............................................................................................335 Pay scales in the civil service ....................................................................335 Policy Framework...........................................................................................335 Huge need for critical controls...................................................................335 Natural resource policy framework ...........................................................336 Corporate wealth policy framework ..........................................................336 Military............................................................................................................336 National defense.........................................................................................336 Emergency assistance.................................................................................337 Involvement with politics...........................................................................337 International military assistance.................................................................337 Military and internal security......................................................................337 Good Reasons for the US Model...................................337 Worry About the Power of a Big Army.........................337 Demobilized soldiers..................................................................................338 Police...............................................................................................................338 The nature of police work...........................................................................338 Community police......................................................................................339 National police............................................................................................339 Local and national police in combination...................................................339 Handling sectarian violence........................................................................339 Gun control ................................................................................................339 Preventing police abuse..............................................................................339 Judicial System................................................................................................339 Legal and justice system MUST be functional...........................................339 Customary Law ..........................................................................................340 Prisons.............................................................................................................341 A prison service..........................................................................................341 Handling violent offenders.........................................................................341 Handling petty crime..................................................................................342 Prisons ......................................................................................................342 Disarmament, Demining and UXOs...............................................................342 Extent of the problem.................................................................................342 Funding de-mining ...................................................................................343 Important in terms of safety and employment ...........................................343 Important in terms of safety and employment ...........................................343 Economic Security..........................................................................................343 The oil resource..........................................................................................343 The commercial economy ..........................................................................343 Employees .................................................................................................343 Vulnerable groups ......................................................................................343 From emergency to development ..............................................................344 Income generation and employment ..........................................................344 Vulnerable groups.......................................................................................344 Enabling Environment ....................................................................................344 Iraq has potential to be a good business environment................................344 Improve infrastructure and services............................................................345 Chapter 19 - Sectors: Infrastructure.....................................................................346 Infrastructure...................................................................................................347 The Centrality of Infrastructure..................................................................347 Construction Strategy.................................................................................347 Housing...........................................................................................................349 Urban housing ...........................................................................................349 Capacity to build houses ............................................................................349 House construction is employment ............................................................349 Strengthening the capacity to build houses ...............................................349 Housing sector............................................................................................349 Seaports and Airports......................................................................................350 Seaports......................................................................................................350 Airports.......................................................................................................350 Roads...............................................................................................................351 Main roads … arterial roads.......................................................................351 Community roads.......................................................................................351 Construction and maintenance ..................................................................351 Employment ...............................................................................................351 Telecom and Internet.......................................................................................351 Telecom......................................................................................................351 Internet........................................................................................................351 Water...............................................................................................................352 Importance of water ...................................................................................352 Knowledge about water .............................................................................352 Competing demands for water ...................................................................352 Sources of water.........................................................................................352 Quality of water..........................................................................................352 Community water sources and water storage.............................................352 Urban water systems...................................................................................353 Plans for water supply improvement .........................................................353 Crop Agriculture.............................................................................................354 Important sector..........................................................................................354 Irrigation.....................................................................................................354 Rainfed agriculture ....................................................................................354 A variety of crops.......................................................................................355 Water .........................................................................................................355 Tractors ......................................................................................................355 Training and extension ..............................................................................355 Livestock and Range Management.................................................................356 Important part of agriculture.......................................................................356 Rangeland management .............................................................................356 Livestock markets ......................................................................................356 Livestock health and veterinary medicine..................................................356 Animal quality improvement......................................................................356 Fodder and feedlots ...................................................................................357 Marketing centers.......................................................................................357 Fisheries .........................................................................................................357 Fisheries not particularly important ...........................................................357 Fish resources ............................................................................................357 Resource management ...............................................................................357 Fish marketing and cold storage.................................................................357 Food.................................................................................................................358 Food............................................................................................................358 Food in Iraq................................................................................................358 An area focus for food security .................................................................358 An area focus for livestock security ..........................................................358 Infrastructure..............................................................................................359 Chapter 21 - Sectors: Industrial Production.........................................................359 Energy: Oil and Gas........................................................................................360 Great possibilities ... huge challenges.........................................................360 Energy: Electricity.............................................................................361 Electricity generation..................................................................................361 Electric grid ...............................................................................................361 Rural distribution........................................................................................361 Energy: Non-Petroleum Fuels.........................................................................361 Overview....................................................................................................361 Coal ... natural gas .....................................................................................362 Windmills .................................................................................................362 Solar ...........................................................................................................362 Minerals and Mining.......................................................................................362 Summary overview ....................................................................................362 Policy about mineral resource exploitation................................................363 Training in mining skills ...........................................................................363 Manufacturing.................................................................................................363 The state of manufacturing.........................................................................363 Jobs ... employment....................................................................................363 What might be possible?............................................................................364 Construction....................................................................................................364 Overview....................................................................................................364 Rebuilding ... housing.................................................................................364 Road construction ......................................................................................364 Employment ...............................................................................................365 Training .....................................................................................................365 Chapter 22 - Sectors: Trade and Logistics...........................................................365 Logistical Services..........................................................................................366 Transport.....................................................................................................366 Truck fleets ................................................................................................366 Air transport ...............................................................................................366 Airport fuel and service..............................................................................366 Port operations ...........................................................................................367 Pipelines.....................................................................................................367 Warehouses ................................................................................................367 Maintenance....................................................................................................367 Repair shops, welding and machine shops.................................................367 Access to training ......................................................................................367 Trade................................................................................................................367 International trade ......................................................................................367 Wholesale trade..........................................................................................368 Retail sector.....................................................................................................369 Informal trade ............................................................................................369 An important sector for income generation ...............................................370 Regulations ... some are needed, most are not............................................370 Chapter 23 - Sectors: Service Sectors..................................................................371 Banking and Financial Services......................................................................372 An important sector for success .................................................................372 Community needs.......................................................................................372 Commercial banking for enterprise ...........................................................372 Informal systems for financial services......................................................373 Public finance.............................................................................................373 Communications.............................................................................................373 Telephone ..................................................................................................373 Internet ......................................................................................................373 Private sector ............................................................................................373 Media...............................................................................................................373 Radio and Television..................................................................................373 Print media .................................................................................................373 New media ... Internet................................................................................374 Professional Sector..........................................................................................374 Professional sector situation.......................................................................374 Tourism...........................................................................................................375 High economic value..................................................................................375 Hotels, restaurants and entertainment.........................................................375 Education.........................................................................................................375 Education sector.........................................................................................375 Educational policy......................................................................................376 Under-served areas.....................................................................................376 Curriculum and text books ........................................................................376 Teachers ....................................................................................................376 Planning and management .........................................................................377 Women and girls ........................................................................................377 Skills training .............................................................................................377 Employment or jobs....................................................................................377 Health .............................................................................................................378 Health situation ..........................................................................................378 Rehabilitation of health sector....................................................................378 Education and training ...............................................................................378 Mother and child health programs .............................................................378 Mental health..............................................................................................379

Chapter 24 - Afterword........................................................................................380


Chapter 18 Tr-Ac-Net's Community Analytics (CA)....382
Chapter 2...................................................................382 Chapter 3...................................................................382 Chapter 4...................................................................382 Chapter 5...................................................................382 Systems approach .....................................................383 Chapter 6...................................................................383 Two key resources.....................................................383 Solutions – making the best use of resources............384 Problems with the process ........................................384 Institutional constraints.............................................385 Chapter 7...................................................................385 Make the very best use of people .............................385 Chapter 8...................................................................386 Financial services .....................................................386 Production infrastructure ..........................................386 Health and human services........................................386 Chapter 9...................................................................386 Governance................................................................386 Infrastructure.............................................................386 Social sector: health...................................................386 Social sector: education.............................................386 Economic sector: banking and insurance..................386 Chapter 10.................................................................387 Information – lots of it, but not much use.................387 Information – useful, independent, reliable, universal ...................................................................................387 The information dimension.......................................387 Knowledge.................................................................388 Science and technology.............................................388 Chapter 11.................................................................388 Chapter 12.................................................................388 Chapter 13.................................................................388 Chapter 14.................................................................388 Chapter 15.................................................................388 Chapter 16.................................................................388 Chapter 17.................................................................388 Chapter 18.................................................................388 Chapter 19.................................................................388 Chapter 25 - CONTENTS....................................................................................390 Chapter 26 Heading 1..........................................................................................390
  • Chapter 1. Why this book .......................................................391
  • Chapter 2. Development has failed.......................................................391
  • Chapter 3. Why the failure?..................................................................391
  • Chapter 4. There are ways forward!......................................................391
  • Chapter 5. Community Focus Development.........................................391
  • Chapter 7. Resources: Human Resources ... People.............................391
  • Chapter 8. Organizations .....................................................................391
  • Chapter 9. Enabling Environment........................................................391
  • Chapter 10. Community Productivity....................................................391
  • Chapter 11. The Information Dimension ..............................................391
  • Chapter 12. Sector Perspective .............................................................391
  • Chapter 13. Sectors: Governance ... Government..................................391
  • Chapter 14. Sectors: Infrastructure .......................................................391
  • Chapter 15. Sectors: Agriculture, Fisheries and Food...........................391
  • Chapter 16. Sectors: Industrial Sector...................................................391
  • Chapter 17. Sectors: Trade and Logistics..............................................391
  • Chapter 18. Sectors: Service Sectors....................................................391
  • Chapter 19. A lot more issues ... afterword..........................................391
CONTENTS - DETAIL..............................................................................393
  • Chapter 1 Why This Book? .........................................393
  • Chapter 2 Development Has Failed .............................393
  • Chapter 3 Why the Failure?..........................................393
  • Chapter 4 There Are Ways Forward.............................393
  • Chapter 5 Community Focus Development..................393
  • Chapter 6 Resources: Natural Resources .....................393
  • Chapter 7 Resources: Human Resources ... People ......393
  • Chapter 8 Organizations ...............................................394
  • Chapter 9 Enabling Environment..................................394
  • Chapter 10 Community Productivity............................394
  • Chapter 11 The Information Dimension.......................394
  • Chapter 12 Sector perspective.......................................394
  • Chapter 13 Sectors: Governance ... government ..........394
  • Chapter 14 Sectors: Infrastructure ................................394
  • Chapter 15 Sectors: Agriculture, Fisheries and Food....395
  • Chapter 16 Sectors: Industrial Sector............................395
  • Chapter 17 Sectors: Trade and Logistics.......................395
  • Chapter 18 Sectors: Service Sectors..............................395
  • Chapter 19 A lot more issues ... afterword....................395

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