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Date: 2018-11-20 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0700-XR-Climate-Change


EXISTENTIAL RISK
CLIMATE CHANGE
CLIMATE CHANGE is one of the biggest risks that has emerged perhaps in all of history


Dangerous heat

GHG pollution

NYC flooded
This is already happening ... a tipping point has almost certainly been passed

DATA ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE
L0700-CS-NC-CLIMATE Open L0700-CS-NC-CLIMATE
L0700-CS-NC-CLIMATE-historic-timeline Open L0700-CS-NC-CLIMATE-historic-timeline
HOW THE CLIMATE SYSTEM WORKS
L0700-CS-NC-GHGs Open L0700-CS-NC-GHGs
L0700-SS-CLIMATE Open L0700-SS-CLIMATE
L0700-SS-CLIMATE-CHANGE-GHG Open L0700-SS-CLIMATE-CHANGE-GHG

CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ACTION TO MITIGATE CLIMATE RISKS

SEA LEVEL RISE GO TOP

A large part of the world's population live in cities that are becoming affected more and more by sea level rise and related flooding.
This map highlights cities around the world that have large populations likely to be affected by sea level rise. To give this context, the area around New York has been identified, but the coastal areas of the US Gulf Coast and the coastal areas of Florida are not identified.
Extreme weather events are becoming much more frequent. Hurricane force winds cause damage to property and injure and kill people. These winds also produce storm surges that together with ocean rise cause flooding. Unusually large amounts of rainfall also cause flooding. All of this causes massive economic loss and terrible social disruption.

TEMPERATURE INCREASE GO TOP
FACT: Land and sea temperatures are rising
and the probable cause is CO2 and other GHGs in the atmosphere
FACT 1: Land and sea temperatures are rising as shown by this plot from 1880 to 2015 FACT 2: increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere which is almost certainly due to human activity: industry, transportation, and increased population.
CORRELATION: Very strong

Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010
by Richard Heede

The purpose of the analysis is to understand the historic emissions as a factual matter, and to invite consideration of their possible relevance to public policy.
This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the historic fossil fuel and cement production records of the 50 leading investor-owned, 31 state-owned, and 9 nation-state producers of oil, natural gas, coal, and cement from as early as 1854 to 2010.
This analysis traces emissions totaling 914 GtCO2e — 63 % of cumulative worldwide emissions of industrial CO2 and methane between 1751 and 2010—to the 90 “carbon major” entities based on the carbon content of marketed hydrocarbon fuels (subtracting for non-energy uses), process CO2 from cement manufacture, CO2 from flaring, venting, and own fuel use, and fugitive or vented methane.
Cumulatively, emissions of 315 GtCO2e have been traced to investor-owned entities, 288 GtCO2e to state-owned enterprises, and 312 GtCO2e to nation-states.
Of these emissions, half has been emitted since 1986.
The carbon major entities possess fossil fuel reserves that will, if produced and emitted, intensify anthropogenic climate change.
GHG-emissions-history-1854–2010-by-Richard-Heede-2013.pdf
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/GHG-emissions-history-1854–2010-by-Richard-Heede-2013.pdf'
Open PDF ... GHG-emissions-history-1854–2010-by-Richard-Heede-2013


UN INITIATIVES to address CLIMATE CHANGE

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) GO TO
UNFCCC - Kyoto - 1997
UNFCCC-Kyota-Protocol-Reference-Manual-1997
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/FCCC/UNFCCC-Kyota-Protocol-Reference-Manual-1997.pdf'
Open PDF ... UNFCCC-Kyota-Protocol-Reference-Manual-1997
UNFCCC - Copenhagen - 2009
Commentary from IISD on the outcome of the Copenhagen Conference
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/IISD/IISD-commentary-Copenhagen-conference-2009.pdf
Open PDF ... IISD-commentary-Copenhagen-conference-2009
UNFCCC - Durban Conference - 2011
Durban Climate Conference, November 2011
Kofi Annan on the decisions Africa needs from Durban climate conference ...
Open file 1542
UN climate conference 2011
UN climate deal hailed as 'important advance' ... New accord will put all countries under the same legal requirements to control greenhouse gases by 2020 at the latest.
Open file 3620
UNFCCC - Lima
UN-FCCC Conference in Lima
Lima discord ... The Lima agreement makes it likelier that a weak global climate deal will be signed in 2015 in Paris
Open file 8760
UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213
http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/FCCC//UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213.pdf
Open PDF ... UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213
UNFCCC - Paris
Historic Paris Agreement on Climate Change:
195 Nations Set Path to Keep Temperature Rise Well Below 2 Degrees Celsius
ARTICLE / 13 DEC, 2015
'https://unfccc.int/news/finale-cop21'
Open external link

PEOPLE

People ... Richard Miller
Global Warming
Rachel Maddow and Professor Richard Muller on global warming science
THE LINK TO AN NBC VIDE0 NO LONGER WORKS
Open file 2904

People ... James Hansen
James-Hansen-ACPD-Climate-Change-Impacts-15-20059-2015 // Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2◦C global warming is highly dangerous
Abstract
There is evidence of ice melt, sea level rise to +5–9 m, and extreme storms in the prior interglacial period that was less than 1 ◦C warmer than today. Human-made climate forcing is stronger and more rapid than paleo forcings, but much can be learned by 5 combining insights from paleoclimate, climate modeling, and on-going observations. We argue that ice sheets in contact with the ocean are vulnerable to non-linear disintegration in response to ocean warming, and we posit that ice sheet mass loss can be approximated by a doubling time up to sea level rise of at least several meters. Doubling times of 10, 20 or 40 years yield sea level rise of several meters in 50, 100 or 10 200 years. Paleoclimate data reveal that subsurface ocean warming causes ice shelf melt and ice sheet discharge. Our climate model exposes amplifying feedbacks in the Southern Ocean that slow Antarctic bottom water formation and increase ocean temperature near ice shelf grounding lines, while cooling the surface ocean and increasing sea ice cover and water column stability. Ocean surface cooling, in the North Atlantic 15 as well as the Southern Ocean, increases tropospheric horizontal temperature gradients, eddy kinetic energy and baroclinicity, which drive more powerful storms. We focus attention on the Southern Ocean’s role in affecting atmospheric CO2 amount, which in turn is a tight control knob on global climate. The millennial (500–2000 year) time scale of deep ocean ventilation affects the time scale for natural CO2 change, thus the time 20 scale for paleo global climate, ice sheet and sea level changes. This millennial carbon cycle time scale should not be misinterpreted as the ice sheet time scale for response to a rapid human-made climate forcing. Recent ice sheet melt rates have a doubling time near the lower end of the 10–40 year range. We conclude that 2 ◦C global warming above the preindustrial level, which would spur more ice shelf melt, is highly danger25 ous. Earth’s energy imbalance, which must be eliminated to stabilize climate, provides a crucial metric

http://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/15/20059/2015/acpd-15-20059-2015.pdf
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/People/JamesHansen/James-Hansen-ACPD-Climate-Change-Impacts-15-20059-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... James-Hansen-ACPD-Climate-Change-Impacts-15-20059-2015
CLIMATE CHANGE ... Hansen etal predictions 2015
RISK-p3-14 ... Some highlights from the Hansen etal report of 2015
James Hansen and many other scientists have been working on the matter of climate change for a long time. Climate change is very complicated, but the evidence is that we are facing change that has not been seen in MILLIONS of years. We are not facing a 100 year storm, but a disruption that happens only a few times in the life of the planet. This Hansen report should be a wake up call to decision makers. It further justifies the MDIA rethink of how we do metrics about all decision making and the accounting for risk. 'http://www.slideshare.net/PeterBurgess2/risk-p314-climate-change-hansen-et-al-predictions-2015-150814'
Open in slideshare

People ... Bjørn Lomborg
Global warming is real, but not the most important economic issue
Bjørn Lomborg on GLOBAL WARNING and Seeming Green
Open file 1646

People ... Amory B. Lovins
Issues ... Climate
Amory B. Lovins ... Climate: Eight Convenient Truths
Open file 9381

People ... Bill McGibben
Bill McGibben
BILL McKIBBEN ... At End of Warmest Year on Record, ‘Alternative Nobel’ Winner Bill McKibben Urges Action on Climate
Open file 8877

People ... Naomi Klein
Economic Impact // Climate Justice
Naomi Klein on Climate Debt: Why Rich Countries Should Pay Reparations to Poor Countries for the Climate Crisis.
Open file 3441

Pope Francis
papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si
ENCYCLICAL LETTER LAUDATO SI’ OF THE HOLY FATHER FRANCIS ON CARE FOR OUR COMMON HOME
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/PopeFrancis/papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si.pdf'
Open PDF ... papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si
papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si-italian
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/PopeFrancis/papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si-italian.pdf'
Open PDF ... papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si-italian
papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/PopeFrancis/papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si.pdf'
Open PDF ... papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si
papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si-italian
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/PopeFrancis/papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si-italian.pdf'
Open PDF ... papa-francesco-20150524-enciclica-laudato-si-italian

President Obama
USA-President-Obamas-Plan-to-Fight-Climate-Change-The-White-House-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/USA/USA-President-Obamas-Plan-to-Fight-Climate-Change-The-White-House-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... USA-President-Obamas-Plan-to-Fight-Climate-Change-The-White-House-2015

EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS
Growing in number as time goes by and temperatures rise
GO TOP

Superstorm Sandy
Superstorm Sandy
US braces as Hurricane Sandy nears landfall ... Hundreds of thousands of residents ordered to evacuate from cities as 'super-storm' bears down on east coast.
Open file 3502
Extreme Weather Events
US braces as Hurricane Sandy nears landfall ... Hundreds of thousands of residents ordered to evacuate from cities as 'super-storm' bears down on east coast.
Open file 3513
Superstorm Sandy
Country ... USA ... Chris Christie Went Ballistic On John Boehner In A Press Conference That Was Like Something Out Of A Movie
Open file 3921
Climate Change
Tom Engelhardt ... The mandate of hell: How not to change the world ... Superstorm Sandy revealed just how 'unprepared' the US infrastructure is for 'predicted climate change events'.
Open file 3613
Climate Change: It's bad and getting worse
AlJazeera English ... Features ... Severe weather events are wracking the planet, and experts warn of even greater consequences to come.
Open file 0107
Funding for Climate Change Impact Mitigation
Climate funds pledged for poor countries ... Rich nations pledge short-term funds to combat climate change in poor countries, but long-term funds remain doubtful.
Open file 3621
Greenhouse Gases
Report: Global carbon dioxide output soaring ... US department of energy says greenhouse emissions rose six per cent in 2010, far more than recent worst case scenario.
Open file 3622
Pricing pollution
101 East ... Pricing pollution ... Australia, one of the world's biggest polluters, has unveiled a radical move to tackle climate change, but will it work?
Open file 3623
Weather ... Global Warming
Debating global warming ... Plenty of theories still doing the rounds, some undisputed and some that are dubious.
Open file 3626
Climate Change ... Missing from US Politics 2012
Mark Hertsgaard ... The deafening silence on climate change ... Global warming has seldom been mentioned this year on the campaign trail, despite Obama's promise to the contrary.
Open file 3690
Climate Change ... Missing from US Politics 2012
Inside Story US 2012 ... US 2012 climate dialogue runs aground ... Why have the US presidential candidates been avoiding discussing climate change in the run up to the elections?
Open file 3691
Climate Change
Missing from US Politics 2012
Hilal Elver ... The cold shoulder to climate change ... Neither candidate has mentioned climate change in the debates or the campaign at large, despite its obvious impact.
Open file 3692

Climate Change Activism GO TOP

Misinformation about climate change

Climate Change ... Misinformation
Heartlands Institute ... It wasn’t just the billboards: How activists brought down the Heartland Institute
Open file 2463

COUNTRY IMPACTS
From the Climate Reality Project, August 2015
GO TOP

Country ... Nigeria
Country ... Nigeria ... Extreme Weather
Nigeria hit by worst flooding in a generation ... Much of the country has been badly affected by exceptional monsoon rain.
Open file 3767

Country ... Philippines
Country ... Philippines ... Extreme Weather
Hundreds dead in Philippines typhoon ... More than 320 people believed dead, with another 87,000 evacuated as Bopha causes havoc across the country's south.
Open file 3768

Islamic Initiatives
Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Misc/Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015

CITIES fully engaging with Climate Change initiatives GO TOP
Ineffective Leadership Response
Climate Changes ... GOOD NIGHT DOHA ... AND WAKE UP! Kay Embren in Stockholm asking the basic question about conference performance, especially in the case of climate change. Surely there is a better way. He suggests the city level would be better than the national level.
Open file 3778

INSTITUTIONS engaged with Climate Change initiatives GO TOP

350.org
Bill McGibben
BILL McKIBBEN ... At End of Warmest Year on Record, ‘Alternative Nobel’ Winner Bill McKibben Urges Action on Climate
Open file 8877
Issues
Climate
Why Do Republicans Reject Human-Made Climate Change?
Open file 8470
Issues
Climate
Amory B. Lovins ... Climate: Eight Convenient Truths
Open file 9381

Issue ... Climate
Carbon Tax
What we can learn from British Columbia’s carbon tax
Open file 9383
Institutions ... Brookings
Brookings-determining_proper_scope_climate_change_benefits
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Brookings/Brookings-determining_proper_scope_climate_change_benefits.pdf'
Open PDF ... Brookings-determining-proper-scope-climate-change-benefits

Institutions ... COIN
COIN ... Climate Outreach & Information Network
Adam Corner ... A-new-conversation-with-the-centre-right-about-climate-change
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/COIN/COIN-A-new-conversation-with-the-centre-right-about-climate-change.pdf'
Open PDF ... COIN ... Climate Outreach & Information Network

Institutions ... EESI
EESI-Climate-Change-News-141013
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/EESI/EESI-Climate-Change-News-141013.pdf'
Open PDF ... COIN ... Climate Outreach & Information Network

Institutions ... GreenPeace
GreenPeace-Climate-Denialism-Annex-A
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/GreenPeace/GreenPeace-Climate-Denialism-Annex-A.pdf'
Open PDF ... GreenPeace-Climate-Denialism-Annex-A

Institutions ... IPCC
IPCC-AR5_Transport_Briefing_WEB_EN
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/IPCC/IPCC-AR5_Transport_Briefing_WEB_EN.pdf'
Open PDF ... IPCC-AR5_Transport_Briefing_WEB_EN
IPCC-AR5_Transport_Infographic_WEB_EN
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/IPCC/IPCC-AR5_Transport_Infographic_WEB_EN.pdf'
Open PDF ... IPCC-AR5_Transport_Infographic_WEB_EN

Institutions ... MIT
MIT-JPSPGC-Rpt264-Inadequate-Policy-Response
Expectations for a New Climate Agreement ... Henry D. Jacoby and Y.-H. Henry Chen
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/MIT/MIT-JPSPGC-Rpt264-Inadequate-Policy-Response.pdf'
Open PDF ... MIT-JPSPGC-Rpt264-Inadequate-Policy-Response

Institutions ... TEC
Mr-Andrae-Presentation.pdf
The role of cloud computing, telepresence and telecommuting for reducing energy usage - Dr. Anders S.G. Andrae, Huawei, Nov. 1, 2013
http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Andrae-Presentation.pdf
Open PDF ... Mr-Andrae-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Hilty-Presentation.pdf
ICT for Sustainability ... Lorenz Hilty
http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Hilty-Presentation.pdf
Open PDF ... Mr-Hilty-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Labelle-Presentation
ICTs for climate and environmental action in the developing world ... Richard Labelle, Consulting ICT4D/ICT4S
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Labelle-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Labelle-Presentation
Mr-Naumann-Presentation.pdf
Green Software Engineering
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Naumann-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Naumann-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Neves-Presentation.pdf
The Role of ICT in Driving a Sustainable Future
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Neves-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Neves-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Rodrigues-Presentation.pdf
WEEE recycling: key aspects in reducing the carbon footprint and providing access to scarce resources
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Rodrigues-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Rodrigues-Presentation.pdf

Institutions ... Yale
Climate-Change-Six-Americas-September-2012
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/Yale/Climate-Change-Six-Americas-September-2012.pdf'
Open PDF ... Climate-Change-Six-Americas-September-2012

Institutions ... 350.org
350-org-3-thoughts-on-this-election
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/350/10ThousandGirl/350-org-3-thoughts-on-this-election.pdf'
Open PDF ... 350-org-3-thoughts-on-this-election
350-org-1000-year-flood
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/350/350-org-1000-year-flood.pdf'
Open PDF ... 350-org-1000-year-flood
Issue ... Climate ... Carbon Tax
What we can learn from British Columbia’s carbon tax
Open file 9383

Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)
Climate Change ... Union of Concerned Scientists ... global-warming-effects
'http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-effects/'
Open LINK ... global-warming-effects
Engines-For-Change-Executive-Summary-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Transport/Engines-For-Change-Executive-Summary-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Engines-For-Change-Executive-Summary-2015
Engines-For-Change-Full-Report-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Transport/Engines-For-Change-Full-Report-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Engines-For-Change-Full-Report-2015
Engines-For-Change-Methodology-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Transport/Engines-For-Change-Methodology-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Engines-For-Change-Methodology-2015
UCS-Nuclear-Power-and-Global-Warming-2007
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Energy/UCS/UCS-Nuclear-Power-and-Global-Warming-2007.pdf'
Open PDF ... UCS-Nuclear-Power-and-Global-Warming-2007
UCS-Carbon-pollution-limits-under-attack
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/UCS/UCS-Carbon-pollution-limits-under-attack.pdf'
Open PDF ... UCS-Carbon-pollution-limits-under-attack

NASA
The current and future consequences of global change
'http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/'
Open LINK ... The current and future consequences of global change

IPCC
IPCC-WG1AR5-Policy-Makers-Summary-SPM-FINAL-2013
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/IPCC/IPCC-WG1AR5-Policy-Makers-Summary-SPM-FINAL-2013.pdf'
Open PDF ... IPCC-WG1AR5-Policy-Makers-Summary-SPM-FINAL-2013

CitiGroup
Citi-GPS-Energy-Darwinism-II-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Companies/CitiGroup/Citi-GPS-Energy-Darwinism-II-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Citi-GPS-Energy-Darwinism-II-2015

Sierra Club
Sierra-Club-Beyond-Coal-Paris-2015-Factsheet
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/SierraClub/Sierra-Club-Beyond-Coal-Paris-2015-Factsheet.pdf'
Open PDF ... Sierra-Club-Beyond-Coal-Paris-2015-Factsheet

Impact on biodiversity
Climate Change ... Impact on biodiversity
Loss of Diversity Near Melting Coastal Glaciers
Open file 10657

Impact of coal
Climate Change ... Beyond Coal
NEW ANALYSIS BY SIERRA CLUB: U.S. ON TRACK TO DRIVE LOWEST EMISSIONS SINCE 1995
Open file 10658

Misc. ... unclassified
Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407
AUTHORS: Michael Greenstone (mgreenst@uchicago.edu) and Daniel Stuart (dstuart@uchicago.edu)
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Misc/Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407.pdf'
Open PDF ... Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407
Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Misc/Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015
Climate Change
Time lapse videos
Time lapse Google Earth videos showing dramatic change in physical geography over a 10 year period
Open file 12410

Hansen et al on Climate Change

Hansen-etal ... Get-carbon-out-of-the-atmosphere-2016
Young People’s Burden: Requirement of Negative CO2 Emissions

Abstract ... Published: 4 October 2016
The rapid rise of global temperature that began about 1975 continues at a mean rate of about 0.18°C/decade, with the current annual temperature exceeding +1.25°C relative to 1880-1920. Global temperature has just reached a level similar to the mean level in the prior interglacial 25 (Eemian) period, when sea level was several meters higher than today, and, if it long remains at this level, slow amplifying feedbacks will lead to greater climate change and consequences. The growth rate of climate forcing due to human-caused greenhouse gases (GHGs) increased over 20% in the past decade mainly due to resurging growth of atmospheric CH4, thus making it increasingly difficult to achieve targets such as limiting global warming to 1.5°C or reducing 30 atmospheric CO2 below 350 ppm. Such targets now require “negative emissions”, i.e., extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere. If rapid phasedown of fossil fuel emissions begins soon, most of the necessary CO2 extraction can take place via improved agricultural and forestry practices, including reforestation and steps to improve soil fertility and increase its carbon content. In this case, the magnitude and duration of global temperature excursion above the natural range of the 35 current interglacial (Holocene) could be limited and irreversible climate impacts could be minimized. In contrast, continued high fossil fuel emissions by the current generation would place a burden on young people to undertake massive technological CO2 extraction, if they are to limit climate change. Proposed methods of extraction such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or air capture of CO2 imply minimal estimated costs of 104-570 trillion dollars 40 this century, with large risks and uncertain feasibility. Continued high fossil fuel emissions unarguably sentences young people to either a massive, possibly implausible cleanup or growing deleterious climate impacts or both, scenarios that should provide both incentive and obligation for governments to alter energy policies without further delay

'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Carbon/Hansen-etal-Get-carbon-out-of-the-atmosphere-2016.pdf'
Hansen-etal Get Carbon out of the Atmosphere Open PDF ... Hansen-etal-Get-carbon-out-of-the-atmosphere-2016

James-Hansen-ACPD-Climate-Change-Impacts-15-20059-2015

'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs//People/JamesHansen/James-Hansen-ACPD-Climate-Change-Impacts-15-20059-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... James-Hansen-ACPD-Climate-Change-Impacts-15-20059-2015
ACPD-Report-Hansen-etal-2015

'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/ACPD/ACPD-Report-Hansen-etal-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... ACPD-Report-Hansen-etal-2015
CLIMATE CHANGE ... Hansen etal predictions 2015
James Hansen and many other scientists have been working on the matter of climate change for a long time. Climate change is very complicated, but the evidence is that we are facing change that has not been seen in MILLIONS of years. We are not facing a 100 year storm, but a disruption that happens only a few times in the life of the planet. This Hansen report should be a wake up call to decision makers. It further justifies the MDIA rethink of how we do metrics about all decision making and the accounting for risk. ...
RISK-p3-14 ... Some highlights from the Hansen etal report of 2015

Open in slideshare
CLIMATE CHANGE
Some highlights from the IPCC report of 2013
Open in slideshare

Climate Reality Project
CLIMATE CHANGE ... SOME OF THE DATA
MDIA-p3-14 ... Some graphs and commentary from the Climate Reality Project
Open in slideshare
Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/ClimateRealityProject/Climate-Reality-Project-Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Climate-Reality-Project-Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015
Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015
In page graphics

Climate Justice
In need of climate justice
Desmond Tutu and Mary Robinson ... 'The richest countries caused the problem, but it is the world's poorest who are suffering from the effects.'
Open file 1626
Economic Impact // Climate Justice
Naomi Klein on Climate Debt: Why Rich Countries Should Pay Reparations to Poor Countries for the Climate Crisis.
Open file 3441

University of Chicago
Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407
SUBJECT: Calculating the Temperature Potential of Fossil Fuels ... AUTHORS: Michael Greenstone (mgreenst@uchicago.edu) and Daniel Stuart (dstuart@uchicago.edu)
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/UChicago/Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407.pdf'
Open PDF ... Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407

United Nations - Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFCCC-Kyota-Protocol-Reference-Manual-1997
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/FCCC/UNFCCC-Kyota-Protocol-Reference-Manual-1997.pdf'
Open PDF ... UNFCCC-Kyota-Protocol-Reference-Manual-1997
UN climate conference 2011
UN climate deal hailed as 'important advance' ... New accord will put all countries under the same legal requirements to control greenhouse gases by 2020 at the latest.
Open file 3620
Durban Climate Conference, November 2011
Kofi Annan on the decisions Africa needs from Durban climate conference ...
Open file 1542
UN-FCCC Conference in Lima ... December 2014
Lima discord ... The Lima agreement makes it likelier that a weak global climate deal will be signed next year.
Open file 8760
UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213
http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/FCCC//UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213.pdf
Open PDF ... UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213
UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/FCCC/UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213.pdf'
Open PDF ... UN-FCCC-Draft-from-Lima-Conference-141213

Climate Reality Project
Climate-Reality-Project-Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/ClimateRealityProject/Climate-Reality-Project-Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Climate-Reality-Project-Ten-Clear-Indicators-Our-Climate-is-Changing-2015
In need of climate justice
Desmond Tutu and Mary Robinson ... 'The richest countries caused the problem, but it is the world's poorest who are suffering from the effects.'
Open file 1626

University of Chicago
Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407
SUBJECT: Calculating the Temperature Potential of Fossil Fuels ... AUTHORS: Michael Greenstone (mgreenst@uchicago.edu) and Daniel Stuart (dstuart@uchicago.edu)
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/UChicago/Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407.pdf'
Open PDF ... Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407

Misinformation about climate change
Climate Change ... Misinformation
Heartlands Institute ... It wasn’t just the billboards: How activists brought down the Heartland Institute
Open file 2463

Extreme weather events
Weather ... Hurricane Sandy
US braces as Hurricane Sandy nears landfall ... Hundreds of thousands of residents ordered to evacuate from cities as 'super-storm' bears down on east coast.
Open file 3502
Extreme Weather Events
US braces as Hurricane Sandy nears landfall ... Hundreds of thousands of residents ordered to evacuate from cities as 'super-storm' bears down on east coast.
Open file 3513
Superstorm Sandy
Country ... USA ... Chris Christie Went Ballistic On John Boehner In A Press Conference That Was Like Something Out Of A Movie
Open file 3921
Climate Change
Tom Engelhardt ... The mandate of hell: How not to change the world ... Superstorm Sandy revealed just how 'unprepared' the US infrastructure is for 'predicted climate change events'.
Open file 3613
Climate Change: It's bad and getting worse
AlJazeera English ... Features ... Severe weather events are wracking the planet, and experts warn of even greater consequences to come.
Open file 0107
Funding for Climate Change Impact Mitigation
Climate funds pledged for poor countries ... Rich nations pledge short-term funds to combat climate change in poor countries, but long-term funds remain doubtful.
Open file 3621
Greenhouse Gases
Report: Global carbon dioxide output soaring ... US department of energy says greenhouse emissions rose six per cent in 2010, far more than recent worst case scenario.
Open file 3622
Pricing pollution
101 East ... Pricing pollution ... Australia, one of the world's biggest polluters, has unveiled a radical move to tackle climate change, but will it work?
Open file 3623
Weather ... Global Warming
Debating global warming ... Plenty of theories still doing the rounds, some undisputed and some that are dubious.
Open file 3626
Climate Change ... Missing from US Politics 2012
Mark Hertsgaard ... The deafening silence on climate change ... Global warming has seldom been mentioned this year on the campaign trail, despite Obama's promise to the contrary.
Open file 3690
Climate Change ... Missing from US Politics 2012
Inside Story US 2012 ... US 2012 climate dialogue runs aground ... Why have the US presidential candidates been avoiding discussing climate change in the run up to the elections?
Open file 3691
Climate Change
Missing from US Politics 2012
Hilal Elver ... The cold shoulder to climate change ... Neither candidate has mentioned climate change in the debates or the campaign at large, despite its obvious impact.
Open file 3692

ORGANIZATIONS
From the Climate Reality Project, August 2015
GO TOP

Islamic Initiatives
Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Misc/Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015

Institutions ... Brookings
Brookings-determining_proper_scope_climate_change_benefits
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Brookings/Brookings-determining_proper_scope_climate_change_benefits.pdf'
Open PDF ... Brookings-determining_proper_scope_climate_change_benefits

COIN
COIN ... Climate Outreach & Information Network
Adam Corner ... A-new-conversation-with-the-centre-right-about-climate-change
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/COIN/COIN-A-new-conversation-with-the-centre-right-about-climate-change.pdf'
Open PDF ... COIN ... Climate Outreach & Information Network

EESI
EESI-Climate-Change-News-141013
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/EESI/EESI-Climate-Change-News-141013.pdf'
Open PDF ... COIN ... Climate Outreach & Information Network

GreenPeace
GreenPeace-Climate-Denialism-Annex-A
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/GreenPeace/GreenPeace-Climate-Denialism-Annex-A.pdf'
Open PDF ... GreenPeace-Climate-Denialism-Annex-A

IPCC
IPCC-AR5_Transport_Briefing_WEB_EN
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/IPCC/IPCC-AR5_Transport_Briefing_WEB_EN.pdf'
Open PDF ... IPCC-AR5_Transport_Briefing_WEB_EN
IPCC-AR5_Transport_Infographic_WEB_EN
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/IPCC/IPCC-AR5_Transport_Infographic_WEB_EN.pdf'
Open PDF ... IPCC-AR5_Transport_Infographic_WEB_EN

Climate Change
The IPPC report of 2013
Some highlights from the IPCC report of 2013 Open in slideshare
Some highlights from the IPCC report of 2013 Open in slideshare

MIT
MIT-JPSPGC-Rpt264-Inadequate-Policy-Response
Expectations for a New Climate Agreement ... Henry D. Jacoby and Y.-H. Henry Chen
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/MIT/MIT-JPSPGC-Rpt264-Inadequate-Policy-Response.pdf'
Open PDF ... MIT-JPSPGC-Rpt264-Inadequate-Policy-Response

TEC
Mr-Andrae-Presentation.pdf
The role of cloud computing, telepresence and telecommuting for reducing energy usage - Dr. Anders S.G. Andrae, Huawei, Nov. 1, 2013
http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Andrae-Presentation.pdf
Open PDF ... Mr-Andrae-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Hilty-Presentation.pdf
ICT for Sustainability ... Lorenz Hilty
http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Hilty-Presentation.pdf
Open PDF ... Mr-Hilty-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Labelle-Presentation
ICTs for climate and environmental action in the developing world ... Richard Labelle, Consulting ICT4D/ICT4S
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Labelle-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Labelle-Presentation
Mr-Naumann-Presentation.pdf
Green Software Engineering
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Naumann-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Naumann-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Neves-Presentation.pdf
The Role of ICT in Driving a Sustainable Future
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Neves-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Neves-Presentation.pdf
Mr-Rodrigues-Presentation.pdf
WEEE recycling: key aspects in reducing the carbon footprint and providing access to scarce resources
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/TEC/Mr-Rodrigues-Presentation.pdf'
Open PDF ... Mr-Rodrigues-Presentation.pdf

Institutions ... Yale
Climate-Change-Six-Americas-September-2012
A Yale study ... What a variety of people think about climate change ... merely opinions
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/Yale/Climate-Change-Six-Americas-September-2012.pdf'
Open PDF ... Climate-Change-Six-Americas-September-2012

Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)
Climate Change ... Union of Concerned Scientists ... global-warming-effects
'http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-effects/'
Open LINK ... global-warming-effects
Engines-For-Change-Executive-Summary-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Transport/Engines-For-Change-Executive-Summary-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Engines-For-Change-Executive-Summary-2015
Engines-For-Change-Full-Report-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Transport/Engines-For-Change-Full-Report-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Engines-For-Change-Full-Report-2015
Engines-For-Change-Methodology-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Transport/Engines-For-Change-Methodology-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Engines-For-Change-Methodology-2015
UCS-Nuclear-Power-and-Global-Warming-2007
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Energy/UCS/UCS-Nuclear-Power-and-Global-Warming-2007.pdf'
Open PDF ... UCS-Nuclear-Power-and-Global-Warming-2007
UCS-Carbon-pollution-limits-under-attack
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/UCS/UCS-Carbon-pollution-limits-under-attack.pdf'
Open PDF ... UCS-Carbon-pollution-limits-under-attack

NASA
The current and future consequences of global change
'http://climate.nasa.gov/effects/'
Open LINK ... The current and future consequences of global change

IPCC

IPCC-WG1AR5-Policy-Makers-Summary-SPM-FINAL-2013
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Issues/ClimateChange/IPCC/IPCC-WG1AR5-Policy-Makers-Summary-SPM-FINAL-2013.pdf'
Open PDF ... IPCC-WG1AR5-Policy-Makers-Summary-SPM-FINAL-2013
CitiGroup
Citi-GPS-Energy-Darwinism-II-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Companies/CitiGroup/Citi-GPS-Energy-Darwinism-II-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Citi-GPS-Energy-Darwinism-II-2015
Sierra Club
Sierra-Club-Beyond-Coal-Paris-2015-Factsheet
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/SierraClub/Sierra-Club-Beyond-Coal-Paris-2015-Factsheet.pdf'
Open PDF ... Sierra-Club-Beyond-Coal-Paris-2015-Factsheet
Impact on biodiversity
Climate Change ... Impact on biodiversity
Loss of Diversity Near Melting Coastal Glaciers
Open file 10657
Impact of coal
Climate Change ... Beyond Coal
NEW ANALYSIS BY SIERRA CLUB: U.S. ON TRACK TO DRIVE LOWEST EMISSIONS SINCE 1995
Open file 10658
Misc. ... unclassified
Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407
AUTHORS: Michael Greenstone (mgreenst@uchicago.edu) and Daniel Stuart (dstuart@uchicago.edu)
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Misc/Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407.pdf'
Open PDF ... Calculating-the-Temperature-Potential-of-Fossil-Fuels-150407
Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/Misc/Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015.pdf'
Open PDF ... Islamic-Declaration-on-Global-Climate-Change-Symposium-2015

10 INDICATORS THE CLIMATE IS CHANGING
From the Climate Reality Project, August 2015
GO TOP
TEN CLEAR INDICATORS OUR CLIMATE IS CHANGING
How do we know our climate is changing permanently, rather than just going through a normal period of flux? Let’s look at 10 major changes scientists have seen in our climate system to help set the record straight.
Few global trends have been as controversial as climate change and the Earth’s warming. The Earth has gone through many shifts in cooling and warming driven by natural factors like the sun’s energy or variations in its orbit, but the trend scientists have seen over the past 50 years is unmistakable.
Let’s take a closer look: globally, average surface temperatures increased 1.1—1.6 degrees Fahrenheit (0.6—0.9 degrees Celsius) between 1906 and 2005. However, it’s the rate of temperature change that’s especially troubling to scientists; temperatures have risen nearly twice as fast in the last 50 years alone.
What other ways has our climate system changed in the last century? How do we really know our climate is changing permanently, rather than just going through a normal period of flux? Between opinions from climate deniers and misinformation campaigns from the fossil fuel industry, it can be a challenge to get the unobstructed facts.
So to help set the record straight, we’re going to focus on 10 major changes scientists have seen in our climate system. Each indicator described below has been extensively studied over the past several decades, and was captured from many different data sets and technologies.
Link to resources related to Climate Reality Project Open L0500-Climate-Reality-Project

CLIMATE CHANGE ... SOME OF THE DATA
MDIA-p3-14 ... Some graphs and commentary from the Climate Reality Project
Open in slideshare


How climate is changing
From NASA ??? 2015 ???
GO TOP
Credit: Left - Mellimage/Shutterstock.com, center - Montree Hanlue/Shutterstock.com, right - NASA

How climate is changing
The potential future effects of global climate change include more frequent wildfires, longer periods of drought in some regions and an increase in the number, duration and intensity of tropical storms.

Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner.

Effects that scientists had predicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occurring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves.

Taken as a whole, the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time. - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

Scientists have high confidence that global temperatures will continue to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gases produced by human activities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which includes more than 1,300 scientists from the United States and other countries, forecasts a temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century.

According to the IPCC, the extent of climate change effects on individual regions will vary over time and with the ability of different societal and environmental systems to mitigate or adapt to change.

The IPCC predicts that increases in global mean temperature of less than 1.8 to 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit (1 to 3 degrees Celsius) above 1990 levels will produce beneficial impacts in some regions and harmful ones in others. Net annual costs will increase over time as global temperatures increase.

'Taken as a whole,' the IPCC states, 'the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time.' 1-2
How climate is changing ... future effects
Some of the long-term effects of global climate change in the United States are as follows, according to the Third and Fourth National Climate Assessment Reports:
https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/
Open external link

Change will continue through this century and beyond
Global climate is projected to continue to change over this century and beyond. The magnitude of climate change beyond the next few decades depends primarily on the amount of heat-trapping gases emitted globally, and how sensitive the Earth’s climate is to those emissions. + MORE

Temperatures will continue to rise
Because human-induced warming is superimposed on a naturally varying climate, the temperature rise has not been, and will not be, uniform or smooth across the country or over time. + MORE

Frost-free season (and growing season) will lengthen
The length of the frost-free season (and the corresponding growing season) has been increasing nationally since the 1980s, with the largest increases occurring in the western United States, affecting ecosystems and agriculture. Across the United States, the growing season is projected to continue to lengthen.
In a future in which heat-trapping gas emissions continue to grow, increases of a month or more in the lengths of the frost-free and growing seasons are projected across most of the U.S. by the end of the century, with slightly smaller increases in the northern Great Plains. The largest increases in the frost-free season (more than eight weeks) are projected for the western U.S., particularly in high elevation and coastal areas. The increases will be considerably smaller if heat-trapping gas emissions are reduced. + MORE


Changes in precipitation patterns
Average U.S. precipitation has increased since 1900, but some areas have had increases greater than the national average, and some areas have had decreases. More winter and spring precipitation is projected for the northern United States, and less for the Southwest, over this century.
Projections of future climate over the U.S. suggest that the recent trend towards increased heavy precipitation events will continue. This trend is projected to occur even in regions where total precipitation is expected to decrease, such as the Southwest. + MORE

More droughts and heat waves
Droughts in the Southwest and heat waves (periods of abnormally hot weather lasting days to weeks) everywhere are projected to become more intense, and cold waves less intense everywhere.
Summer temperatures are projected to continue rising, and a reduction of soil moisture, which exacerbates heat waves, is projected for much of the western and central U.S. in summer. By the end of this century, what have been once-in-20-year extreme heat days (one-day events) are projected to occur every two or three years over most of the nation. + MORE

Hurricanes will become stronger and more intense
The intensity, frequency and duration of North Atlantic hurricanes, as well as the frequency of the strongest (Category 4 and 5) hurricanes, have all increased since the early 1980s. The relative contributions of human and natural causes to these increases are still uncertain. Hurricane-associated storm intensity and rainfall rates are projected to increase as the climate continues to warm. + MORE

Sea level will rise 1-4 feet by 2100
Global sea level has risen by about 8 inches since reliable record keeping began in 1880. It is projected to rise another 1 to 4 feet by 2100. This is the result of added water from melting land ice and the expansion of seawater as it warms.

In the next several decades, storm surges and high tides could combine with sea level rise and land subsidence to further increase flooding in many regions. Sea level rise will continue past 2100 because the oceans take a very long time to respond to warmer conditions at the Earth’s surface. Ocean waters will therefore continue to warm and sea level will continue to rise for many centuries at rates equal to or higher than those of the current century. + MORE

Arctic likely to become ice-free
The Arctic Ocean is expected to become essentially ice free in summer before mid-century. + MORE

U.S. regional effects
Below are some of the impacts that are currently visible throughout the U.S. and will continue to affect these regions, according to the Third3 and Fourth4 National Climate Assessment Reports, released by the U.S. Global Change Research Program:

Northeast. Heat waves, heavy downpours and sea level rise pose growing challenges to many aspects of life in the Northeast. Infrastructure, agriculture, fisheries and ecosystems will be increasingly compromised. Many states and cities are beginning to incorporate climate change into their planning.

Northwest. Changes in the timing of streamflow reduce water supplies for competing demands. Sea level rise, erosion, inundation, risks to infrastructure and increasing ocean acidity pose major threats. Increasing wildfire, insect outbreaks and tree diseases are causing widespread tree die-off.

Southeast. Sea level rise poses widespread and continuing threats to the region’s economy and environment. Extreme heat will affect health, energy, agriculture and more. Decreased water availability will have economic and environmental impacts.

Midwest. Extreme heat, heavy downpours and flooding will affect infrastructure, health, agriculture, forestry, transportation, air and water quality, and more. Climate change will also exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes.

Southwest. Increased heat, drought and insect outbreaks, all linked to climate change, have increased wildfires. Declining water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, health impacts in cities due to heat, and flooding and erosion in coastal areas are additional concerns.

References

IPCC 2007, Summary for Policymakers, in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p. 17.

IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

USGCRP 2014, Third Climate Assessment.

USGCRP 2017, Fourth Climate Assessment.

A degree of difference
A degree of difference

So, the Earth's average temperature has increased about 2 degrees Fahrenheit during the 20th century. What's the big deal?

Two degrees may sound like a small amount, but it's an unusual event in our planet's recent history. Earth's climate record, preserved in tree rings, ice cores, and coral reefs, shows that the global average temperature is stable over long periods of time. Furthermore, small changes in temperature correspond to enormous changes in the environment.

For example, at the end of the last ice age, when the Northeast United States was covered by more than 3,000 feet of ice, average temperatures were only 5 to 9 degrees cooler than today.

Find out more

The U.S. Global Change Research Program's Third Assessment Report

The IPCC's 2014 report on climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability

Latest resources Summer blooms in the Baltic Summer blooms in the Baltic

Video: For 15 years, GRACE tracked freshwater movements around the world Video: For 15 years, GRACE tracked freshwater movements around the world

NASA studies an unusual Arctic warming event NASA studies an unusual Arctic warming event

Heat Check ... Extreme heat kills more than a hundred New Yorkers yearly.
Here's how the city's tackling the problem in a warming world. Open file 15469

Wildfires in California and the American West



DATA ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change has been taking place ... and is accelerating
GO TOP

HOW THE CLIMATE SYSTEM WORKS
An equilibrium has been established over thousands of years ... but recent changes could destabilize this fragile equilibrium
GO TOP

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
The impact of climate change has the potential to be catastophic
GO TOP

LIKELY CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE
Most degradation of the environment comes from industrial activities.
Industrial activity is required in order to suuport people's consumption
GO TOP

The State of the Climate in 2017 report is a supplement to the August 2017 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS Vol. 99, No. 8). Open PDF ... BAMS-State-of-the-Climate-2017

ESSENTIAL RESPONSES TO CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS GO TOP


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