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Date: 2017-11-23 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0700-NC-CLIMATE

NATURAL CAPITAL - CLIMATE
AIR / ATMOSPHERE / CLIMATE/WEATHER / NATURAL CIRCULATIONS

More snow / More floods / More storms / More droughts

CLIMATE CHANGE

EARTH TEMPERATURE TIMELINE
EARTH TEMPERATURE TIMELINE ... THE LAST 600 YEARS
EARTH TEMPERATURE TIMELINE ... THE LAST FEW MILLION YEARS
L0700-NC-CLIMATE-historic-timeline
Open L0700-NC-CLIMATE-historic-timeline
Earth Temperature Timeline ... 1850 - 2016
Global temperatures are on the rise again as 2016 has been marked as the hottest on record.
Open file 12947
Earth Temperature Timeline ... 1880 - 2016
Global ocean temperature anomolies from 1880 to 2016
The temperature rise post 1980 has been continuous ... reflecting the massive increase in scale of industrial activity in the post war years.
Earth Temperature Timeline ... 9000 BC - 2016 AD
Very long term temperative change ... a period of 10,000 years
The temperature rise in the last hundred years is 'off the chart'

Temperature Rise
Correlation beteen temperature and carbon dioxide concentration
Global temperature and Carbon Dioxide
The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased significantly over the same period 1880 to 2016
Recent years have seen significant rise in termperatue ANB significant increase in the concentration of of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
There was a blip in temperature increase during WWII before carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded as rising. Might the reason for this be the lack of accurate data during the war years?

ICE MELT / SEA LEVEL RISE
Arctic Ice Melt
Observation of ice melt has been going on for several decades. There are indications that the process of ice melt is accelerating rather than going more slowly.
Sea Level Rise ... 1992 to 2016
Multiple measures for sea level rise show sea level rise has been substantial in recent years
POPULATION AT RISK DUE TO SEA LEVEL RISE
The population of many major cities will be adversely affected by sea level rise
2015-916-NPS-NRR-Coastal-Assets-Exposed-to-1m-of-Sea-Level-Rise-Peek-et-al
National Park Service ... Adapting To Climate Change in Coastal Parks
Estimating the Exposure of Park Assets to 1 m of Sea-Level Rise
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/SeaLevelRise/2015-916-NPS-NRR-Coastal-Assets-Exposed-to-1m-of-Sea-Level-Rise-Peek-et-al.pdf'
Open PDF ... SEI-Study-on-the-Integrity-of-the-Clean-Development-Mechanism-2011

EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS - 2012

SUPERSTORM SANDY
Superstorm Sandy
A fierce storm with enormous energy ...
Superstorm Sandy
A coastline destroyed: Terrifying pictures show the devastation wreaked on New Jersey's shores by Sandy
Open file 12948
Impact of Superstorm Sandy on New Jersey
Homes, flooded after Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the southern New Jersey coastline, on October 30, 2012 in Tuckerton, New Jersey.
The Economic Damage Associated with Superstorm Sandy
An aerial photo of Jan 18 2013 shows thousands of cars damaged during Superstorm Sandy and stored on the runways at an airport in Calverton, N.Y.

HURRICANE HARVEY - 2017
SOUTH TEXAS ... HOUSTON / BEAUMONT / WESTERN LOUISIANA


HURRICANE IRMA - 2017
CARIBBEAN ISLANDS / FLORIDA / GEORGIA / CAROLINAS


REPORTS on CLIMATE ISSUES
Carbon Control Mechanisms
SEI-Lessons-for-Carbon-Mechanism-2015 (128 pages) Has Joint Implementation reduced GHG emissions? Lessons learned for the design of carbon market mechanisms
Anja Kollmuss, Lambert Schneider and Vladyslav Zhezherin ... Stockholm Environment Institute Analysis of impact of Joint Implementation Kyoto Protocol to generate Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) from greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Carbon/SEI/SEI-Lessons-for-Carbon-Mechanism-2015.pdf'
ABSTRACT
This study systematically evaluates the environmental integrity of Joint Implementation (JI) in the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Our analysis indicates that about three-quarters of JI offsets are unlikely to represent additional emissions reductions. This suggests that the use of JI offsets may have enabled global GHG emissions to be about 600 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent higher than they would have been if countries had met their emissions domestically. Of the six largest project types assessed in more detail, we find only one – N2O abatement from nitric acid production – had overall high environmental integrity. Our evaluation clearly shows that oversight of an international market mechanism by the host country alone is insufficient to ensure environmental integrity. The paper makes recommendations for the ongoing review of the JI Guidelines, for carbon markets generally, and for a new climate agreement.
TPB Note 170912: This seems to be another example of the myth of markets, the invisible hand rarely produces the desired outcome but something completely different!
Open PDF ... SEI-Lessons-for-Carbon-Mechanism-2015
SEI-Study-on-the-Integrity-of-the-Clean-Development-Mechanism-2011
(81 pages)
Has Joint Implementation reduced GHG emissions? Lessons learned for the design of carbon market mechanisms
Anja Kollmuss, Lambert Schneider and Vladyslav Zhezherin ... Stockholm Environment Institute Analysis of impact of Joint Implementation Kyoto Protocol to generate Emission Reduction Units (ERUs) from greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects

'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Carbon/SEI/SEI-Study-on-the-Integrity-of-the-Clean-Development-Mechanism-2011.pdf'
Open PDF ... SEI-Study-on-the-Integrity-of-the-Clean-Development-Mechanism-2011

TRUMP ADMINISTRATION AGAINST THE ENVIRONMENT
Doing everything they can to stop essential remediation
GO TOP
EDF-171028-Trump-Presidency-An-Unprecedented-Attack

Now, the Trump Administration is working to undermine two critical victories:
First, the Department of Interior announced they working to unravel much-needed limits on the amount of natural gas industry is allowed to waste through venting, leaking, and burning off (in a process called 'flaring') on our public and tribal lands.
Then, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt announced a proposal to repeal the Clean Power Plan—America's first-ever national limits on the carbon pollution spewing from our fossil fuel-fired power plants.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/EDF/EDF-171028-Trump-Presidency-An-Unprecedented-Attack.pdf'
Open PDF ... EDF-171028-Trump-Presidency-An-Unprecedented-Attack

Emission Reduction Unit (ERU)
An ERU represents a reduction of greenhouse gases under the Joint Implementation mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, where it represents one tonne of CO2 equivalent reduced.[1]
To allow comparison between the different effects of gases on the environment, scientists have defined multipliers for gases that compare their greenhouse potency (global warming potential) relative to that of carbon dioxide.
'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emission_Reduction_Unit'
Open external Wikilink
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide.
A GWP is calculated over a specific time interval, commonly 20, 100, or 500 years. GWP is expressed as a factor of carbon dioxide (whose GWP is standardized to 1).
'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming_potential'
Open external Wikilink
Report on sea climate change related metrics attributed to specific carbon producing companies
12 pages

The rise in global atmospheric CO2, surface temperature, and sea level from emissions traced to major carbon producers
B. Ekwurzel 1 & J. Boneham2 & M. W. Dalton2,3 & R. Heede 4 & R. J. Mera1,5 & M. R. Allen2 & P. C. Frumhoff 6
Received: 19 August 2016 /Accepted: 23 April 2017
# The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/CrossMark/CrossMark-climate-change-2017.pdf'
Open PDF ... CrossMark-climate-change-2017

'../../DBpdfs/Carbon/TCFD-Report-Letter-2016-12-21.pdf' '../../DBpdfs/Carbon/TCFD-Report-Overview-2016-Dec.pdf'
UNLOCKING POTENTIAL ... State-of-the-Voluntary-Carbon-Markets-2017-Executive-Summary

'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/NaturalCapital/ForestTrends/State-of-the-Voluntary-Carbon-Markets-2017-Executive-Summary.pdf'
Open PDF ... State-of-the-Voluntary-Carbon-Markets-2017-Executive-Summary
UNLOCKING POTENTIAL ... State-of-the-Voluntary-Carbon-Markets-2017-Full-Report

'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/NaturalCapital/ForestTrends/State-of-the-Voluntary-Carbon-Markets-2017-Full-Report.pdf'
Open PDF ... State-of-the-Voluntary-Carbon-Markets-2017-Full-Report
Organization: Forest Trends ... Staff List / details
Staff list, short bios of staff at Forect Trends
Open file 13923

Banking-On-Climate-Change-2017
This 8th annual Fossil Fuel Finance Report Card grades fossil fuel policies and tabulates financing from 37 major private banks from across Europe, the United States, Canada, Japan, China, and Australia.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Banking/Banking-On-Climate-Change-2017.pdf'
Open PDF ... Banking-On-Climate-Change-2017

Climate change linkages

Mapping these climate change linkages to the TVM management metrics
While the logic of this diagram is sound, it is very difficult to use as a foundational construct or management metrics.
The socio-enviro=economic system has positive progress when the STATE or CAPITAL of the system improves or increases. In conventional financial accounting the measure of progress is the increace in financial capital. In TVM it is the aggregate improvement or increase in ALL the capitals taken together.
Climate is a component of NATURAL CAPITAL, and important in so far as the climate that has been stable for a very long time ... millions of years ... might be poised to change in ways that are very unpredictable and may well prove to be an existential threat to the very survival of mankind.
The RISK of possible climate change MUST be taken into consideration when making decisions and for this there needs to be an apprppriate metric.
Climate change risk is TVM STREAM. What this means is that climate change risk is recognized as a factor that feeds into many of the FLOWS that impact the various STATES.
Impact of climate change on New York City’s coastal flood hazard: Increasing flood heights from the preindustrial to 2300 CE

6 pages ... Coastal flooding poses a major risk to New York City (NYC), which has nearly 49.7 million built square meters and 400,000 people living within the 100-y floodplain (1). The coastal flood risk was illustrated in 2012, when Hurricane Sandy’s storm surge of 2.8 m above the mean tidal level (MTL) at the Battery tide gauge produced an estimated $50 billion of damage to the region (2). Under a changing climate, the coastal flood risk to NYC is unknown
Andra J. Garnera,b,1, Michael E. Mannc,d, Kerry A. Emanuele, Robert E. Koppb,f, Ning Ling, Richard B. Alleyh,Benjamin P. Hortona,b,i,j, Robert M. DeContok, Jeffrey P. Donnellyl, and David Pollardd
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/PNAS/PNAS-2017-Garner-1703568114.pdf'
Open PDF ... PNAS-2017-Garner-1703568114
Impact of climate change on New York City’s coastal flood hazard: Increasing flood heights from the preindustrial to 2300 CE

15 pages ... Coastal flooding poses a major risk to New York City (NYC), which has nearly 49.7 million built square meters and 400,000 people living within the 100-y floodplain (1). The coastal flood risk was illustrated in 2012, when Hurricane Sandy’s storm surge of 2.8 m above the mean tidal level (MTL) at the Battery tide gauge produced an estimated $50 billion of damage to the region (2). Under a changing climate, the coastal flood risk to NYC is unknown
Andra J. Garnera,b,1, Michael E. Mannc,d, Kerry A. Emanuele, Robert E. Koppb,f, Ning Ling, Richard B. Alleyh,Benjamin P. Hortona,b,i,j, Robert M. DeContok, Jeffrey P. Donnellyl, and David Pollardd
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/ClimateChange/PNAS/PNAS-2017-Garner-1703568114-with-supplementary-info.pdf'
Open PDF ... PNAS-2017-Garner-1703568114-with-supplementary-info

An Energy Balance
This energy balance maybe the most important for an equilibrium we can live with!

Heat Flow and energy balance
Schematics of Earth short-wave and long-wave energy balance (source: Kiehl and Trenberth1997).
All numbers are in watts per square meter of earth surface area




The text being discussed is available at



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