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Date: 2022-01-27 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0700-II-ECOSYSTEM-SERVICES

Eco System Services

A listing of files associated with Eco System Services

Civil war / Devastation / Genocide / Hunger / Homelessness / Poverty /

Costs and Benefits

Open PDF ... EU-Opportunity-Costs-of-Biodiversity-and-Ecosystem-Action


Open PDF ... MEA-Millennium-Ecosystem-Assessment-Toolkit
Millennium-Ecosystem-Assessment Website
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being. From 2001 to 2005, the MA involved the work of more than 1,360 experts worldwide. Their findings provide a state-of-the-art scientific appraisal of the condition and trends in the world’s ecosystems and the services they provide, as well as the scientific basis for action to conserve and use them sustainably.
Open PDF ... Millennium-Ecosystem-Assessment Website

Ecosystem Marketplace ... an initiative of Forest Trends

Ecosystem Services
About Ecosystem Services ... What are ecosystem services and why do we need them?
Open file 8781

The Value of Ecosystem Services

Open PDF ... The-Wilderness-Society-Ecosystem-Services-Value
Open PDF ... CGD-Katrina-Mullen-The-Value-of-Forest-Ecosystem-Services-to-Developing-Countries
Open PDF ... USDA-Valuing-Ecosystem-Services
Open PDF ... Quantifying-the-Value-of-Ecosystem-Services-Rebecca-Moore-etal-Final-Report-1-24-11
Open PDF ... Value-of-Forest-Ecosystems-Background-Report

Valuing Ecosystem Services
Material on the website

Purposes and uses of the Website
(A) ... Purpose of this Website
(B) ... The Big Picture
(C) ... Essentials
(D) ... Benefits
(E) ... Feedback
(F) ... Links
(G) ... Glossary
TPB Note:
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The Big Picture

(1) Why Estimate Ecosystem Values?
(2) Why are estimates of ecosystem benefits needed?
(3) Finding Appropriate and Practical Answers
(4) Overview of Ecosystem Valuation
(5) What are the Benefits of Ecosystem Conservation, Preservation, or Restoration?
(6) Dollar Measures of Ecosystem Values
(7) Non-Dollar Measures of Ecosystem Values
(8) Practical Importance of Ecosystem Valuation
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Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation
Introduction Essentials of Ecosystem Valuation provides a non-technical overview of the economic theory of benefit estimation, and an overview of valuation methods and practical considerations for applying them. Other sections of the website will assume that the reader understands the concepts discussed in this section.
Section Contents
1 Basic Concepts of Economic Value ...Explains the basic economic theory and concepts of economic valuation.
2 Valuation of Ecosystem Services ... Explains some important definitions and concepts related to how economists approach ecosystem valuation.
3 Overview of Methods to Estimate Dollar Values ... A brief overview of the dollar-based valuation methods that are described in detail in Dollar-Based Ecosystem Valuation Methods.
4 Applying Ecosystem Value Estimates - Benefit-Cost Analysis ... Describes how ecosystem values are applied for decision-making using benefit-cost analysis.
For those readers who want to explore these concepts in more detail, here are a few references.
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Dollar-based Ecosystem Valuation Methods
This section describes methods that are used to estimate dollar measures of economic values associated with ecosystems.
Each subsection describes one method or a set of related methods, and provides the following information:
A brief non-technical overview of the method.
An illustration showing how the method might be applied, in step by step fashion.
One or more case study examples.
A more detailed and technical description of the method.
Section Contents
1) Market Price Method ... Estimates economic values for ecosystem products or services that are bought and sold in commercial markets.
2) Productivity Method ... Estimates economic values for ecosystem products or services that contribute to the production of commercially marketed goods
3) Hedonic Pricing Method ... Estimates economic values for ecosystem or environmental services that directly affect market prices of some other good. Most commonly applied to variations in housing prices that reflect the value of local environmental attributes.
4) Travel Cost Method ... Estimates economic values associated with ecosystems or sites that are used for recreation. Assumes that the value of a site is reflected in how much people are willing to pay to travel to visit the site.
5) Damage Cost Avoided, Replacement Cost, and Substitute Cost Methods ... Estimate economic values based on costs of avoided damages resulting from lost ecosystem services, costs of replacing ecosystem services, or costs of providing substitute services.
6) Contingent Valuation Method ... Estimates economic values for virtually any ecosystem or environmental service. The most widely used method for estimating non-use, or “passive use” values. Asks people to directly state their willingness to pay for specific environmental services, based on a hypothetical scenario.
7) Contingent Choice Method ... Estimates economic values for virtually any ecosystem or environmental service. Based on asking people to make tradeoffs among sets of ecosystem or environmental services or characteristics. Does not directly ask for willingness to pay—this is inferred from tradeoffs that include cost as an attribute.
8) Benefit Transfer Method ... Estimates economic values by transferring existing benefit estimates from studies already completed for another location or issue.
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Relative Indicators of Ecosystem Value
This section provides insights into how to value an environmental asset, such as a wetland or forested buffer, or a conservation practice, such as a proposed wetland restoration or reforestation project, in terms of their relative value. The question that was the focus of the previous section dealing with absolute measures of value was: What is the dollar value of X or Y? The question that is the focus in this section is: Is the value of X greater or less than the value of Y?
Showing that the environmental benefits from spending on one project are greater than the benefits of spending on another project is much easier than estimating the dollar benefits of either project. It is easier to justify that spending is being managed to “maximize environmental benefits” per dollar spent than to justify any particular level of dollar spending.
This section is a 'work in progress.' It provides guidance about developing practical and defensible indicators of relative ecosystem value that can be used to compare environmental conservation alternatives. However, it doe not provide definitive sets of indicators that can be used for this purpose.
The section has two parts: The first describes the steps required to develop indicators and provides illustrations of situations where they can be used to improve conservation management. The second provides background information and examines concepts and tools that will be useful for designing indicator systems. Each part will be interesting to a different audience. Those interested in understanding the focus of value-based indicators and how they can be put into practice may only wish to browse Part 1. Those interested in the more abstract and technical aspects of developing value-based indicators may wish to dig further by browsing Part 2. Both parts will be expanded and imroved as resources become available.
Part 1 Indicator Development Basics
Introduction to Relative Ecosystem Values
Step to Focus and Develop Relative Value Indicators
Three Illustrations of Relative Ecosystem Value
Part 2 Concepts, Definitions and Food for Thought
Types of Indicators
Food for Thought
This Section includes:
Part I
Introduction to Relative Ecosystem Valuation
Steps in Developing Relative Value Indicators
Three Illustrations of Relative Ecosystem Value
Part II
Types of Indicators
Food for Thought
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Essentials, Section 4 ...Applying Ecosystem Value Estimates – Benefit-Cost Analysis
This section describes how ecosystem values are applied to decision-making using benefit-cost analysis.
TPB Note: The matter of discounting is discussed in this paper. It should be noted that while it may be appropriate to discount money performance in the future, it is compleltely inappropriate to discount environmental changes that are possibilities in the future.
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