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Date: 2018-09-20 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0700-CS-NC-LAND

LAND is a critical constraint ... but almost totally misunderstood in policy making

TO DO ... update images to be more relevant to the subject matter

Much of the land on planet earth is either desert or mountain and unsuited to human habitation. Some people in the modern consumer economy are using more than their fair share of the land to support their lifestyle. Land is being developed into urban conurbations and for industrial scale agriculture reducing the land that is available for natural ecosystem services critical for the sustainability of the enviro-socio-economic system.
The total land area of 200 territories is 13,056 million hectares. Divided up equally that would be 2.1 hectares for each person. A hectare is 100 metres by 100 metres. However, population is not evenly spread: Australia's land area is 21 times bigger than Japan's, but Japan's population is more than six times bigger than Australia's. (
Open file 1136
China interest in Argentina land irks locals
VIDEO Farmers worried about damage that comes with the excessive use of chemicals in large-scale agriculture.
Open file 1765

Land / Forests
Forest Stewardsship Council ... Promoting Responsible Forestry
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Land / Wetlands
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Land ... Wetlands ... TPB note:
I became aware of the importancve of mangrove and coastal wetlands early in my career when I was the CFO of an international shrimp company. In order for a shrimp fishing company to be financially sustainable there has to be a supply of wild shrimp not only this season, but into future seasons. The mangrove is a key part of the shrimp life cycle, and without a biologically healthy mangrove there will not be a financial future for the company. Accordingly I worked in a variety of countries on initiatives to maintain coastal wetlands. I left this role at Continental Seafoods in 1978 and I am appalled at the amount of coastal degradation that has taken place in the last 50 years mainly because of tourist development and shrimp farming in sensitive coastal areas!
Land ... Wetlands ... The New Jersey Meadowlands
The New Jersey Meadowlands is very valuable real estate very close to Manhattan, New York City. At the same time the Meadowlands are very valuable as wetland and part of the essential natural ecosystem for the Hudson River and local marine life. Prior to 1960s the land was also used as a dump for the solid waste from New York City. This was ended and then the area became toe site for commercial development including the Meadowlands Sports Complex. Subsequently the value of the Meadowlands as a critical wetlands has been recognized and ongoing built development restricted.
Land ... Wetlands
Details about how wetlands work and their socio-enviro-economic value
'Wetlands.' Water: No Longer Taken For Granted. . (January 6, 2017).
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Ecology-of-Regularly-Flooded-Salt-Marshes-in-New-England ... June 1986
John M Teal, Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographical Institution, Woods Hole MA
National Coastal Ecological Team, US Fish and Wildlife Services, US Department of the Interior Washington DC and Louisiana
Open PDF ... Ecology-of-Regularly-Flooded-Salt-Marshes-in-New-England
Mangrove wetlands are the most bio-diverse parts of the global ecosystem
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Video ... Think Mangrove Forests ... Mangrove Action Project Open file 12048
Video ... Mangroves : Reducing the Risk of Disaster through Nature-Based Solutions Open file 12532
Video ... Mangrove Action Project ... Community Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration Open file 12533
This paper explores financial tools for investing in natural infrastructure to reduce current and future risks from flooding. The key conclusions are:
1. There is a large and growing pool of funding for natural infrastructure, but the availability is geographically uneven and providing sufficient resources will require significant actions by industry, government, scientists, and communities.
 There are both public and private sources that can fund natural infrastructure for flood risk reduction. Approaches vary among the U.S., Europe, and international development organizations. For example, funding for natural flood control infrastructure is a byproduct of other purposes in the U.S., but recognized as a specific purpose in Europe and by development organizations.
 The opportunities for investments in natural infrastructure are shaped by various factors, including local geography, type and extent of ecosystems, knowledge about local flood risks, approaches to funding ecosystem conservation, the capacity of financing systems, and the socioeconomic status of communities.
 The types and amounts of funding for natural infrastructure can be expected to grow because of innovations such as catastrophe bonds, but current institutional structures are often ill-suited to take advantage of existing and emerging opportunities and are not prepared to meet increasing risk.
2. There is no single appropriate financing mechanism for natural infrastructure. Financing should reflect the distribution of public or private benefits of flood protection through the payment mechanism as determined by specific local conditions.
 The appropriate funding approach will depend on several factors, including local natural conditions (geography, ecosystems), local governance (including the socioeconomic status of communities), the condition of national financial systems (including the robustness of public or private property insurance markets), and public policies that explicitly support the use of natural infrastructure. We identify the key characteristics of these factors that should influence decisions on appropriate funding mechanisms.
3. The largest opportunities for funding are in the redirection of post-disaster recovery funds to pre-disaster investments in risk reduction.
 Flood risk reduction should be undertaken before the flood occurs, but we currently spend much more on recovery efforts than on risk reduction. The greatest opportunities to increase resources for risk reduction lie in combining funds for risk reduction with funds for flood recovery. These investments will further reduce damages to lives, properties, and communities over time.
 Recent innovations such as catastrophe and resilience bonds offer potential approaches to combining recovery and risk reduction, while green bonds may provide pre-disaster financing under appropriate conditions. 4. The largest barriers for securing adequate resources are: identifying locations where natural infrastructure can play a significant role in flood risk reduction; developing the experience and standards to overcome institutional biases that favor gray infrastructure; and developing institutional arrangements capable of matching available funding with the needs of individual situations.
 To develop new financing, it is critical to develop a body of experience that would expand the existing foundation of natural systems management, risk assessment, and valuation analysis of natural infrastructure, and increase its acceptance and use. The identification of viable projects for naturebased risk reduction is critical for expanding pools of available funds. The identification of specific projects- including the location, the ecosystem restoration methods, the expected benefits, and the regulatory feasibility- will often need to be included in the up-front costs of the development of new financing vehicles.
 Infrastructure banks are an example of institutions that can be structured to match funders with specific needs. These banks can pool the funding needs of different natural infrastructure projects to make them attractive to private capital markets. It will be necessary to create special purpose organizations that can capture the benefits of risk reduction in ways that support market-based finance.
The funding strategy to be used for any specific project will depend primarily on the geographic, economic, and institutional circumstances in each location. But it is possible to create a general framework to catalogue the different approaches to financing, from which locally-determined funding strategies can be formed. This paper proposes such a framework, then outlines and examines the options currently available under the framework, and concludes with an assessment of how funding may expand in the future.
Open PDF ... Financing-Natural-Infrastructure-a-report-financed-by-Lloyds

Land / Tropical Rain Forest
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Land - Tropical Rain Forest

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The business case for soil
The business case for soil
Action on soil sustainability must move beyond the farm and into the boardroom, urges Jess Davies ... Nature-The-Value-of-Soil
Open file 12941 Open PDF Nature-The-Value-of-Soil

Land / Savannah
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Savanna covers approximately 20% of the Earth's land area. There are several variants of savanna.
Tropical and subtropical savannas are classified with tropical and subtropical grasslands and shrublands as the tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. The savannas of Africa, including the Serengeti, famous for its wildlife, are typical of this type. The Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) is also included in this category, known for its exotic and varied flora.
Temperate savannas are mid-latitude savannas with wetter summers and drier winters. They are classified with temperate savannas and shrublands as the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, that for example cover much of the Great Plains of the United States. (See areas such as the Central forest-grasslands transition).
Mediterranean savannas are mid-latitude savannas in Mediterranean climate regions, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, part of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. The oak tree savannas of California, part of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, fall into this category.
Flooded savannas are savannas that are flooded seasonally or year-round. They are classified with flooded savannas as the flooded grasslands and savannas biome, which occurs mostly in the tropics and subtropics.
Montane savannas are high-altitude savannas, located in a few spots around the world's high mountain regions, part of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome. The lowland savannas of the Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands ecoregion are an example.
Open wikiedia link

Land / Stormwater Pollution
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Rutgers Cooperative Extension Water Resources Program ... Christopher C. Obropta, Ph.D., P.E.Extension Specialist in Water Resources Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Jeremiah Bergstrom, LLA, ASLA Senior Research Project Manager Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE GUIDANCE for reducing the impacts of impervious cover on water quality ''
Open PDF ... Impervious-surfaces-water-management-Rutgers-GI-Brochure

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A total of 14 Major Habitat Types reflect the diverse array of organisms adapted to life on land. These habitats range from the wettest of forest types to the driest and hottest desert conditions. Moreover, terrestrial communities represented here include the full extent of continental topographic relief: from mangrove forests by the sea to the alpine meadows of the Himalayas.
Open L0700-NC-LAND-Ecoregions
1 ... Deserts and xeric shrublands Open Ecoregions#1
2 ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Open Ecoregions#2
3 ... Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Open Ecoregions#3
4 ... Tropical and suptropical coniferous forests Open Ecoregions#4
5 ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Open Ecoregions#5
6 ... Temperate Coniferous Forest Open Ecoregions#6
7 ... Boreal forests / Taiga Open Ecoregions#7
8 ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas and shrublands Open Ecoregions#8
9 ... Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands Open Ecoregions#9
10 ... Flooded grasslands and savannas Open Ecoregions#10
11 ... Montane grasslands and shrublands Open Ecoregions#11
12 ... Tundra Open Ecoregions#12
13 ... Mediterranean Forests, woodlands and scrubs Open Ecoregions#13
14 ... Mangroves Open Ecoregions#14

The text being discussed is available at

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