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Date: 2018-12-18 Page is: DBtxt001.php L070-XT-EXCHANGE-TRADE

EXCHANGE / TRADE
Exchange and Trade is one of the ways in which ValueAdd occurs


Most financial metrics show growth and are therefore considered better

Stock market

Intangible value

Money supply

World GDP growth

US GDP growth

GDP v GPI

INCOMPLETE
There is a lot of duplication and incorrectly placed information on this pages

SEIGNIORAGE
The profit made by a government by issuing currency, especially the difference between the face value of coins and their production costs
What is Seigniorage?
Seigniorage is the profit made by a government by issuing currency, mainly the difference between the face value of coins and their production costs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seigniorage
Open Wikipedia page ...
The US Mint
Originally part of the State Department, the US Mint was formed as an independent agency in 1799. It is now a part of the Treasury Department. The Mint's headquarters (a non-coin-producing facility) are in Washington D.C.. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, Denver, San Francisco, and West Point, New York and there is a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky.
The US Federal Reserve does not control the US Mint and the issuance of currency, and in this regard is different from the UK where the Bank of England (a Centrasl Bank) performs this function.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Mint
Open Wikipedia page ...
The UK currency
The Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The Pound Sterling was a very powerful currency for a very long time, and used in much of the world's commerce. This ended after the Second World War when the role of the Pound Sterling was taken over in large part by the US dollar.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Mint
Open Wikipedia page ...
BoE-Money-in-the-Modern-Economy-An-Introduction 2014 >br>
Bank of England Paper ... 2014 ... Money in the Modern Economy
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Money/BoE-Money-in-the-Modern-Economy-An-Introduction 2014.pdf'
TPB Note: The drop in seigniorage since 2010 is remarkable, especially when there has been a massive increase in the balance sheet of the BoE (and other Central Banks) and the huge increase in 'money' circulating in the global economy. Given this, it is all the more noteworthy that much of this money is owned by very wealthy corporate organizations and individuals and rather little is available to working people and governments which in the end delivers an increasingly unhappy society.
Open PDF ... BoE-Money-in-the-Modern-Economy-An-Introduction 2014

WHAT IS CURRENCY?
More confusion than clarity
What is Currency?
A definition of currency is that it is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.[4] Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Currency
Open Wikipedia page ...
A Graphic from Appleseed Permaculture

The US dollar is currency, as is the European Euro.
The Dollar and the Euro are money that serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value
The 'currencies' described in this concept are the value flows ... often intangible ... that are associated with each of the capitals
The concept of 'complexing to' has some similarity with the concept of TVIA where the STREAM / STRAND/ STRING is one of the most important REPORTING ENTITIES because of the way PRODUCTS flow through the system having IMPACT all the time and everywhere.

WHAT IS MONEY?
Multiple roles ... Much confusion

This framing of the role of money worked well for the 'economy' that existed during the industiral revolution, but not so well for the much more complex global socio-enviro-economic system that now exists in the 21st century.
When money serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value it cannot also serve as a measure of the value and have much measurement meaning.
Money is efficient as a medium of exchange.
Money also works as a store of value as long as the idea of money is trusted to have value. The importance of this trust cannot be overstated.
In order to measure the value of intangibles of all sorts, the solution is to use UNIT OF ACCOUNT specific to the characteristic of the intangible element and what it does.

Trends: The Emergence of FinTech
Thwarting an Uber Future for Complementary Currencies: Open Protocols for a Credit Commons.
A paper by Bendell-and-Slater-2017.

Abstract: The paper explores the rationale and potential for practitoners in both complementary currencies and platform cooperatives, and their associated researchers, to consider the role of open protocols to grow the digital commons and avoid a digital dystopia of platform monopolies. The authors contend that there have been two parallel worlds of practice that have hitherto had little interaction. On the one hand, the largely capitalist-backed fields of cryptographic currency innovation and blockchain development, and on the hand the more community-oriented initiatives with older, less technological complementary currencies. Through a literature review, the same rift is shown to extend to academic literature. The authors suggest this division reflects a more philosophical divide between capitalist interests and those seeking to generate and maintain shared wealth. Based on that analysis the relevance of the concept of “the commons” is discussed, as well as the “digital commons” as a way of framing different approaches.
The importance of developing open protocols in order to create conditions for new entrants to thrive, including “protocol cooperatives” is explained. The argument that a free market in privatelyissued currencies would naturally avoid monopoly, without conscious effort to do so from innovators and regulators is rejected. Instead, the concept of the commons is applied to currencies and credit, with implications for the development of open protocols for complementary currencies. The vision, strategy and roadmap of the new Credit Commons Collective is presented. The methodology for the research is an adaptation of “reflective practice” through a structured use of “thinking partnership” over the years of engagement with the subject matter, complemented with periods of academic literature review, including for this paper.
The complete paper
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Money/Bendell-and-Slater-2017.pdf'
Open PDF ... Bendell-and-Slater-2017

A Multi Currency World
Conventional financial accounting has rules for handling multi-curency financial reporting
TPB note: My experience includes development project accounting where the funding agency (e.g. The World Bank) did its accounting in US Dollars while the country (e.g. Namibia) did its accounting in Rand. Projects in Namibia funded by Sweden had accounting in Kroner for the donor, accounting in Rand for the beneficiary country and accounting in US dollars for international reporting.
The Dollar and the Euro are money that serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value
TPB note: Other experience included international development finance work in Madagascar where my client company did its accounting in local currency (Malagache francs) but reported in both local currency and international currency (French francs). It was also required to report to the IFC in US dollars. Operations located in Madagascar had expenses in Malagache frans and had local bank finance in Malagache frans. Sales were made mainly in Japanese Yen, Spanish psetas and French francs. Major loan financing was denominated in US dolars (IFC), French francs (CCCE) and in European ECU (European Development Bank).
Open L0700-ML-CURRENCIES

Multiple Units of Account
Multiple Units of Account
The main units of account
...... units of account for MONEY
............ one for each CURRENCY
...... there are units of account for PEOPLE
............ one for LIFE ITSELF
............ one for QUALITY OF LIFE (perhaps with further sub-divisions)
...... there will be several units of account for NATURE
............ one for LAND
............ one for WATER
............ one for AIR
............ one for Carbon/GHG/Climate
............ one for BIO-DIVERSITY
............ one for ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
More about Units of Account Open L070-UA-UNITS-OF-ACCOUNT

Honey as money / US paper dollar / UK pound coin / Gold bars
Honey as money
US paper dollar
UK pound coin
Gold bars

The Gold Standard for Money
The price of gold in USD from 1960 to 2016

Gold has been used as money ... that is a medium of exchange and a store of value for many centuries. Unlike most other phsyical materials, gold did not degrade over time and therefore maintained its 'value'. It was also scarce and could not suddenly change in value because of a rapid increase in the amount of gold.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types can be distinguished: specie, bullion, and exchange.
In the gold specie standard the monetary unit is associated with the value of circulating gold coins, or the monetary unit has the value of a certain circulating gold coin, but other coins may be made of less valuable metal.
The gold bullion standard is a system in which gold coins do not circulate, but the authorities agree to sell gold bullion on demand at a fixed price in exchange for the circulating currency.
The gold exchange standard usually does not involve the circulation of gold coins. The main feature of the gold exchange standard is that the government guarantees a fixed exchange rate to the currency of another country that uses a gold standard (specie or bullion), regardless of what type of notes or coins are used as a means of exchange. This creates a de facto gold standard, where the value of the means of exchange has a fixed external value in terms of gold that is independent of the inherent value of the means of exchange itself.
Most nations abandoned the gold standard as the basis of their monetary systems at some point in the 20th century, although many hold substantial gold reserves
More about the Gold Standard Open Wikipedia page
More about 'Gold as an investment' Open Wikipedia page

The life of modern man depends upon his mastery of money.
This 95 page paper was written by E.C. Riegel in 1944
Our political money system is breaking down and must be displaced by one that serves the needs of modern exchange. Otherwise our civilization will perish.
As technological improvements tend to specialize and confine each man's production, the need for the exchange of products increases, and, therefore, man's dependence upon money makes the mastery of this vital agency more and more imperative.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Money/ECRiegel-Private-Enterprise-Money-1944.pdf' Open PDF ... ECRiegel-Private-Enterprise-Money-1944
From the preface to the Riegel paper of 1944 ...

MONEY OR YOUR LIFE ... The life of modern man depends upon his mastery of money.


Our political money system is breaking down and must be displaced by one that serves the needs of modern exchange. Otherwise our civilization will perish.

As technological improvements tend to specialize and confine each man's production, the need for the exchange of products increases, and, therefore, man's dependence upon money makes the mastery of this vital agency more and more imperative.

Production grows more mechanical, while consumption, on the other hand, has no machine technique; it still operates by our hands and bodies. Therefore there can never be mass consumption to coordinate with mass production. Consumption remains private and individual. Production grows more interdependent - requiring the coordination of many machines and many hands - while the function of consumption cannot be shared or mechanized; it is human, individual, self-dependent.

To fulfill the function of consumption (without which production is purposeless) the individual must be, as buyer, a self-starter and self-stimulator, and therefore, money power, sufficient to buy his production, must be at the command of every man. Otherwise the people cannot coordinate their consumption with their production and this deficiency causes the production machine to clog and recoil with vicious consequences. Not only are these economic results painful in themselves, but they cause the people to turn to political intervention as a remedy, and this complicates the problem and increases the peril.

WE MUST HAVE LESS RATHER THAN MORE POLITICAL INTERVENTION AND THIS BOOK WILL SHOW THAT IT IS POLITICAL INTERVENTION THROUGH THE MONEY SYSTEM THAT BREEDS ALL OUR ILLS. PRIVATE ENTERPRISE MUST, IF IT IS TO BE PRESERVED AND PERFECTED, HAVE A PRIVATE ENTERPRISE MONEY SYSTEM. THE POLITICAL MONEY SYSTEM IS INHERENTLY ANTIPATHIC TO PRIVATE ENTERPRISE AND INEVITABLY TENDS TO COMMUNIZATION.

Our mass production power must be balanced by our individual buying power and our buying power is dependent upon our individual money-creating power. Money cannot meet modern needs by descending to the people; it must rise from them. Until this is comprehended mass production must continue to miscarry. We, as consumers, must literally make money or be stymied. Government cannot assume this responsibility for us. Every individual producer must exert the right and assume the duty of creating money, if there be need therefore, to buy the value of his own production. There cannot be full distribution of wealth without full distribution of money power. He who would make must also take - in ratio. Each of us must have the ability to create fountain pen money with our own hands. Machine production must be coordinated with handmade money.

Recurrent business slumps, mal-distribution, over-production, unemployment, panics and depressions are but the gentler reminders that our industrial life is in danger. In the end war presses a gun against our head with the demand - money or your life. Must our economic and political maladies be compounded into periodic cataclysms and our civilization be destroyed before we master money?

Typical of the stress laid by economists upon the need for sustained purchasing power is the following quotation from 'The Dilemma of Thrift' written in 1926 by William Trufant Foster and Waddill Catchings:

'In fact, adequate, sustained consumer-demand would do more than pay other means now within human control toward increasing wealth, abolishing poverty, maintaining employment, solving labor problems, increasing good will among men generally, and maintaining the peace of the world. No means of preventing war holds out such large immediate possibilities as this... It is, therefore, difficult to exaggerate the importance of finding a means of sustaining purchasing power. The next world war, if it does come, may well be the last war - at least the last war in which the present nations will have any interest, for it may well destroy civilization itself.'

Well, 'the next world war' has come and is upon us, and whether or not it is leading to the destruction of civilization will not be determined by the outcome of the military phase of the war. The issue cannot be determined by military victory. Its cleavage is not the battle front. Both Axis and Allied Nations are committed to the system of government-created purchasing power, whether they be classed as fascist, communist or democratic. The broad question that will determine the fate of humanity is whether the evil practice of synthetic buying power by governments shall continue to the inevitable collapse of the social order or whether the producer of wealth will exert his natural buying power and thus avert disaster. Without reservation I assert that the whole fate of society hinges upon the one question of whether it can at this critical juncture gain mastery through the mastery of money and thus coordinate purchasing power with producing power. The issue is - money or your life. - E. C. Riegel
'http://www.mind-trek.com/treatise/ecr-pem/preface.htm' Open external link
TPB commentary
While Riegel wrtote this in 1944, some of the ideas have relevance more than 70 years later. I have a deep respect for the ideas if Keynes when he was trying to understand the root causes for the global depression of the 1930s, and the work Keynes did in establishing the Bretton Woods arrangements to help stabilize the post war economy. Some of the Riegel thesis seems to be very much in line with Keynes.
Fast forward to now, getting an appropriate equilibrium between the capacity to produce and the demand for products seems to be important, and also the need to enable everyone to have the means to purchase what they need, which means they must be enabled to contribute value and be remunerated adequately.
The idea of supply and demand determining price does not seem to work in the way anticipated in basic economics. Even though there is surplus production in almost all sectors of the global economy, the prices do not go down in the way that one might have expected. This is because almost every product flows through a system of corporaqte cartelization that enables pricing to value rather than pricing accoridng to simple market forces







CRYPTOCURRENCIES
A growing presence in the financial system
Open L0700-MX-CRYPTOCURRENCIES

Open external link




SolarCoin
A coin / token based on potential
GO TOP
SolarCoin ... Frequently asked questions
SolarCoin is a blockchain-based digital currency distributed to solar producers at a rate of one coin per megawatt-hour of solar energy produced, based on verified meter readings. The organization maintains a public ledger which records each SolarCoin given out to solar electricity generators.
https://solarcoin.org/en/faq-frequently-asked-questions/
Open external link
SolarCoin ... accountability / transparency
https://solarcoin.org/en/solarcoin-oca-accounting-transparency/
Open external link
Cryptocurrency / Solarchain
Enterprise Times News article: SolarCoin blockchain: earn your reward
The SolarCoin Foundation, based in Greenwich, Connecticut, seeks to incentivise solar production one megawatt-hour at a time. It uses blockchain technology as its foundation. Founded in 2014 by a group of solar experts and macro-economists, the SolarCoin Foundation is an international network of volunteers and a community. Its purpose is to oversee the distribution of SolarCoins (cryptoexchange symbol: SLR).
Open file 13744
SolarCoin-PV-roadmap-foldout
The basis for SolarCoin ... that is the potential of solar PV to produce electricity up to around 2050.
Open PDF ... SolarCoin-PV-roadmap-foldout
Growing number and value of the crytocurrency economy

In the second quarter of 2017 the amount of ICO related financing has boomed (ICI = Initial Coin Offering). These were negligable in 2015 and 2016 and started to grow very rapidly in the early part of 2017. This reflects the growing understanding of what blockchain technology can be used for, and an increasing acceptance of its use. It also reflects the willingness of a certain class of investor to embrace the idea that 'if BitCoin can be a vehicle for wealth creation, then maybe another blockchain based coin or token might do the same ... and make me rich!'

CityCoins
A coin / token based on PLACE
GO TOP
Alfonso-Govela-City-Coins-White-Paper-v1-170904
The basis for SolarCoin ... that is the potential of solar PV to produce electricity up to around 2050.
'../../DBpdfs/Thinkers/Alfonso-Govela/Alfonso-Govela-City-Coins-White-Paper-v1-170904.pdf'
Open PDF ... Alfonso-Govela-City-Coins-White-Paper-v1-170904

INS
Blockchain for Retail Grocery
GO TOP
INS-ICO-Whitepaper-171002
INS believes Bitcoin, Ethereum and other blockchain ecosystems will usurp traditional industries, including retail. Blockchain offers a compelling solution to the problem of combining accessibility with privacy and security ... [TPB: huge potential for disruption ... technology driver from Russia!]
'../../DBpdfs/BlockChain/ICOs/INS-ICO-Whitepaper-171002.pdf'
Open PDF ... INS-ICO-Whitepaper-171002

STK
Blockchain / Cryptocurrency for Global Payments
GO TOP
STK-whitepaper-171002
STK Global Payment’s vision is to create a globally accessible alternative to traditional banking, allowing you to store your money safely, access it instantly and transact with it anywhere, in any currency including crypto by using the STK token, right from your smartphone, using the STACK app. Creating a digital wallet as a companion to a traditional card solution, the STACK app enables you to use any of your currencies at point of sale, anywhere in the world.
'../../DBpdfs/BlockChain/ICOs/STK-whitepaper-171002.pdf'
Open PDF ... STK-whitepaper-171002

MARKETS
MARKETS HAVE FACILITATED TRADE AND EXCHANGE FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

MARKETS
Markets have facilitated trade and exchange for thousands of years. The economic theory about trade is quite clear that free trade delivers benefit or value add. Global empires have become prosperous because of their opportunities to trade and obtain 'comparative advantage'.
In the last few years since 1980 the world's ability to trade with China enabled enormous value add that has enabled the modernization and development of China while making it possible for companies (mainly) in Europe and North America to prosper and the historically high inflation rates of the 1970s to be reduced.
But the markets of the 21st century are enabled not by the simple perceptions of the human mind and the concept of 'rational man' as in classical economics, but by automated systems that use complex algoriths to determine what it is best to buy.
This information may be very valuable and highly desirable for the party with the knowledge, but it is thr antithesis of the 'efficient market' of classical economics because the goal is to have an information advantage rather than information equality.
This graphic promulgated by Leah Busque
It depicts the great complexity of a modern market
This graphic blogged by Leah Busque ... Engineer -> entrepreneur -> early-stage investor, Boston native -> SF transplant. Founder, TaskRabbit. GP FUEL Capital. Mother of two 👩‍👧‍👦
'https://blog.usejournal.com/the-anatomy-of-a-marketplace-16b9d4ee8174'
Open external link
This is not your grandfather's market ... not indeed the market described by Adam Smith in Wealth of Nations (published in 1776) What this market is not simply 'the invisible hand' of classical economics, but a carefully crafted system that is driven by algorithms to achieve a particular objective that may or may not be beneficial to society at large but is aimed at delivering benefit to the organizing party. This may be awful .. or it may be good. It depends on the design of the algorith ... and understanding this reality and enabling accountability is essential to a sustainable better world.

EXCHANGE / TRADE
Exchange and Trade is a vital way to achieve meaningful value add

RELATED TVM WEBPAGES
There is a lot of duplication in these pages, and a significant amount of incorrectly places information. A process of clarification is in progress.
L0700-CFC-CREATED-FINANCIAL-CAPITAL
Money / Currency is central to Financial Capital and very important for the efficient functioning of the real economy, but it needs to function as a medium of exchange to facilitate transactions and trade and not be an economic profit center in its own right. Money has historically had a role as a store of value, but cannot function as a value adding activity in its own right. To the extent that money / currency services are profitable, these profits are only possible because of transfers from activities that have produced real tangible value adding.
Open L0700-CFC-CREATED-FINANCIAL-CAPITAL
L0700-CFC-Money Open L0700-CFC-Money
L0700-IS-BANKING-FINANCE TO ADD
SOCIO-ENVIRO-ECONOMIC TRENDS ... FINANCIAL ECONOMY
These trends have been in place for many years ... but now dominate the system
Open L0700-PP-FINANCIAL-ECONOMY
BANKING AND FINANCIAL SERVICES
A critical lubricant for the economy ... but neither the engine nor the fuel
As much a constraint on progress as enabling progress
Open L0700-SI-BANKING-FINANCIAL-SERVICES
L0700-SS-FINANCE TO ADD
WRONG-METRICS
Modern technology makes wrong metrics more dangerous than they have ever been before
Open L0300-Wrong-Metrics
Alternative Finance
A growing number of ideas ... mostly impractical or worse than what already exists
Open list0300-Alternative-Finance
list0300-Banking-Finance-Money Open list0300-Banking-Finance-Money
list0300-Finance Open list0300-Finance
list0300-ForeignExchange Open list0300-ForeignExchange
list0300-Microfinance Open list0300-Microfinance
list0300-Monetization TO ADD

WHAT IS CURRENCY?
More confusion than clarity

A Graphic from Appleseed Permaculture
The US dollar is currency, as is the European Euro.
The Dollar and the Euro are money that serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value
The 'currencies' described in this concept are the value flows ... often intangible ... that are associated with each of the capitals
The concept of 'complexing to' has some similarity with the concept of TVIA where the STREAM / STRAND/ STRING is one of the most important REPORTING ENTITIES because of the way PRODUCTS flow through the system having IMPACT all the time and everywhere.

What is money?

When money serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value it cannot also serve as a measure of the value and have much measurement meaning.
Money is efficient as a medium of exchange.
Money also works as a store of value as long as the idea of money is trusted to have value. The importance of this trust cannot be overstated.
In order to measure the value of intangibles of all sorts, the solution is to use UNIT OF ACCOUNT specific to the characteristic of the intangible element and what it does.

Bendell-and-Slater-2017.

Thwarting an Uber Future for Complementary Currencies: Open Protocols for a Credit Commons.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Money/Bendell-and-Slater-2017.pdf'
Open PDF ... Bendell-and-Slater-2017

A Multi Currency World
Conventional financial accounting has rules for handling multi-curency financial reporting
TPB note: My experience includes development project accounting where the funding agency (e.g. The World Bank) did its accounting in US Dollars while the country (e.g. Namibia) did its accounting in Rand. Projects in Namibia funded by Sweden had accounting in Kroner for the donor, accounting in Rand for the beneficiary country and accounting in US dollars for international reporting.
The Dollar and the Euro are money that serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value TPB note: Other experience included international development finance work in Madagascar where my client company did its accounting in local currency (Malagache francs) but reported in both local currency and international currency (French francs). It was also required to report to the IFC in US dollars. Operations located in Madagascar had expenses in Malagache frans and had local bank finance in Malagache frans. Sales were made mainly in Japanese Yen, Spanish psetas and French francs. Major loan financing was denominated in US dolars (IFC), French francs (CCCE) and in European ECU (European Development Bank).

Multiple Units of Account
The main units of account
...... units of account for MONEY
............ one for each CURRENCY
...... there are units of account for PEOPLE
............ one for LIFE ITSELF
............ one for QUALITY OF LIFE (perhaps with further sub-divisions)
...... there will be several units of account for NATURE
............ one for LAND
............ one for WATER
............ one for AIR
............ one for Carbon/GHG/Climate
............ one for BIO-DIVERSITY
............ one for ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
Honey as money / US paper dollar / UK pound coin / Gold bars
L0700-SC-FINANCIAL-CAPITAL
Money / Exchange is central to Financial Capital and very important for the efficient functioning of the real economy. Money is needed as a medium of exchange to facilitate transactions and trade and not be an economic profit center in its own right.
Money has historically had a role as a store of value, but cannot function as a value adding activity in its own right.
To the extent that money / exchange services are profitable, these profits are only possible because of real value transfers taking place from activities that have produced real tangible value adding.
Open L0700-CS-FC-FINANCIAL-CAPITAL

L0700-CFC-Money Open L0700-CFC-Money
L0700-IS-BANKING-FINANCE TO ADD
PROGRESS AND PERFORMANCE TRENDS ... FINANCIAL ECONOMY
These trends have been in place for many years ... but now dominate the system
Open L0700-PP-FINANCIAL-ECONOMY
BANKING AND FINANCIAL SERVICES
A critical lubricant for the economy ... but neither the engine nor the fuel
As much a constraint on progress as enabling progress
Open L0700-SI-BANKING-FINANCIAL-SERVICES
L0700-SS-FINANCE TO ADD
WRONG-METRICS
Modern technology makes wrong metrics more dangerous than they have ever been before
Open L0300-Wrong-Metrics
Alternative Finance
A growing number of ideas ... mostly impractical or worse than what already exists
Open list0300-Alternative-Finance
list0300-Banking-Finance-Money Open list0300-Banking-Finance-Money
list0300-Finance Open list0300-Finance
list0300-ForeignExchange Open list0300-ForeignExchange
list0300-Microfinance Open list0300-Microfinance
list0300-Monetization TO ADD



The text being discussed is available at


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