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Meaningful Metrics for a Smart Society
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Date: 2018-11-20 Page is: DBtxt001.php L070-QN-QUANTIFICATION-NUMBERING

QUANTIFICATION - NUMBERING
WITHOUT NUMBERING, THERE IS NO MEASUREMENT AND NO MANAGEMENT

MEASURE WHAT MATTERS
Financial metrics are powerful ... but on their own, they produce the wrong results
Peter Drucker famously said 'You cannot manage what you don't measure'
This is undounbtedly true ... in the corporate world, the components that go into making profit are measured intensely in order to improve profit performance ... and it works! Unfortunately, we don't do anything like the same amount of measuring in order to improve society and avoid degrading the environment ... and we don't have any easy way of talking about social performance and environmental performance in the same way that we are able to talk about corporate performance and investment portfolio performance. This has to change ... this is what TrueValueMetrics (TVM) is all about. When numbers about progress and performance are missing, then there is no conversation that is grounded in reality and it becomes easy to promulgate 'fake news' and the appearance of good performance without much reality.

YOU MANAGE WHAT YOU MEASURE ... THEREFORE MEASURE THE IMPORTANT THINGS
CHANGING THE WAY THE GAME IS SCORED WILL CHANGE THE WAY THE GAME IS PLAYED
MEASURING PROFIT AND GDP GROWTH IS SIMPLY NOT GOOD ENOUGH

Measure Change in State and you Measure Progress
ALL the CAPITALS / SOCIAL. NATURAL and ECONOMIC
(I) SOCIAL CAPITAL

SOCIO
(II) NATURAL CAPITAL

ENVIRO
(III) ECONOMIC CAPITAL

ECONOMIC

Triple Bottom Line (TBL)
People
Planet
Profit

MANY USES FOR MEASUREMENT GO TOP
L070-MA-METRICS-ACCOUNTANCY Open L070-MA-METRICS-ACCOUNTANCY
L0700-MA-ACCOUNTING-OVERVIEW Open L0700-MA-ACCOUNTING-OVERVIEW
L0700-MA-CARBON-ACCOUNTING Open L0700-MA-CARBON-ACCOUNTING
L0700-MA-FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTANCY Open L0700-MA-FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTANCY
L0700-MA-COST-MNGT-ACCOUNTING Open L0700-MA-COST-MNGT-ACCOUNTING
L0700-MA-ECONOMIC-ANALYSIS Open L0700-MA-ECONOMIC-ANALYSIS
L0700-MA-ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE Open L0700-MA-ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE
L0700-MA-ENVIRONMENTAL-ACCOUNTING Open L0700-MA-ENVIRONMENTAL-ACCOUNTING
L0700-MA-FINANCIAL Open L0700-MA-FINANCIAL
L0700-MA-IMPACT-INVESTMENT-ANALYSIS Open L0700-MA-IMPACT-INVESTMENT-ANALYSIS
L0700-MA-INVESTMENT-ANALYSIS Open L0700-MA-INVESTMENT-ANALYSIS
L0700-MA-MANAGEMENT Open L0700-MA-MANAGEMENT
L0700-MA-NATIONAL-ACCOUNTS Open L0700-MA-NATIONAL-ACCOUNTS
L0700-MA-STANDARD-COST-ACCOUNTING Open L0700-MA-STANDARD-COST-ACCOUNTING
L0700-MA-SUSTAINABILITY-ACCOUNTING Open L0700-MA-SUSTAINABILITY-ACCOUNTING
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L070-MG-METRICS-GOALS Open L070-MG-METRICS-GOALS
L0700-MG-MDGs Open L0700-MG-MDGs
L0700-MG-SDGs Open L0700-MG-SDGs
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L070-ML-MONEY-LIQUIDITY Open L070-ML-MONEY-LIQUIDITY
L0700-ML-ALTERNATIVE-CURRENCIES Open L0700-ML-ALTERNATIVE-CURRENCIES
L0700-ML-CC-CRYPTOCURRENCIES Open L0700-ML-CC-CRYPTOCURRENCIES
L0700-ML-CC-Bitcoin Open L0700-ML-CC-Bitcoin
L0700-ML-CURRENCIES Open L0700-ML-CURRENCIES
L0700-ML-FINANCE Open L0700-ML-FINANCE
L0700-ML-FINANCIAL-INCLUSION Open L0700-ML-FINANCIAL-INCLUSION
L0700-ML-VALUE-BASED-CURRENCY-UNITS Open L0700-ML-VALUE-BASED-CURRENCY-UNITS
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L070-MM-MANAGEMENT-METRICS Open L070-MM-MANAGEMENT-METRICS
L0700-MM-POS-INFORMATION Open L0700-MM-POS-INFORMATION
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L070-MT-METRICS Open L070-MT-METRICS
L0700-MT-ECONOMIC-ANALYSIS Open L0700-MT-ECONOMIC-ANALYSIS
L0700-MT-IMPACT-INVESTMENT Open L0700-MT-IMPACT-INVESTMENT
L0700-MT-INVESTMENT-ANALYSIS Open L0700-MT-INVESTMENT-ANALYSIS
L0700-MT-STANDARD-COST-ACCOUNTING Open L0700-MT-STANDARD-COST-ACCOUNTING
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METRICS-REPORTING Open L070-MR-METRICS-REPORTING
ENVIRONMENT, SOCIAL, & GOVERNANCE (ESG) Open L0700-MR-ESG
ECCONOMIC VALUE ADD (EVA) Open L0700-MR-EVA
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
Open L0700-MR-GDP
GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS (GNH) Open L0700-MR-GNH
GENUINE PROGRESS INDICATOR (GPI) Open L0700-MR-GPI
GLOBAL REPORTING INITIATIVE (GRI) Open L0700-MR-GRI
INTEGRATED REPORTING (IR)
Open L0700-MR-IR-Integrated-Reporting
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L070-MV-METRICS-INVESTMENT Open L070-MV-METRICS-INVESTMENT

MEASURE WHAT MATTERS
MODERN METRICS ARE DANGEROUSLY DYSFUNCTIONAL
GO TOP
Navigation
CONVENTIONAL CORPORATE MANAGEMENT METRICS
It is widely accepted that you manage what you measure. The modern world has impressive data about corporate profit performance and the growth of financial wealth. These metrics dominate the conversation in the media, and important decisions being made in politics and business.
The measures for social performance and environmental performance are intellectually and methodologically weak compared to the data systems deployed for accounting for, managing and reporting profit.
The dysfunction of modern metrics is one of the key reasons why so much in the modern world is wrong ... but by no means the only thing that is wrong!
Open L0700-MA-FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTANCY

L070-SV-STANDARD-VALUE-PROFILE Open L070-SV-STANDARD-VALUE-PROFILE
(1) L0700-SV-Human-Capital Open L0700-SV-Human-Capital
(2) L0700-SV-Relationship-Capital Open L0700-SV-Relationship-Capital
(3) L0700-SV-Natural-Capital Open L0700-SV-Natural-Capital
(4) L0700-SV-Physical-Capital Open L0700-SV-Physical-Capital
(5) L0700-SV-Financial-Capital Open L0700-SV-Financial-Capital
(6) L0700-SV-Knowledge-Capital Open L0700-SV-Knowledge-Capital
(7) L0700-SV-Institutional-Capital Open L0700-SV-Institutional-Capital
(8) L0700-SV-Cultural-Capital Open L0700-SV-Cultural-Capital
(9) L0700-SV-Locational-Capital Open L0700-SV-Locational-Capital

A SET OF BETTER METRICS
Metrics for:
... (1) SOCIAL CAPITAL;
... (2) NATURAL CAPITAL; and
... (3) ECONOMIC CAPITAL,

The prevailing reliance on economic metrics, of which corporate profits, stock prices and GDP growth are most dominant means that there is chronic distortion in the priorites that go into making a better world. The idea that these economic measures are essentially the main measures of the performance for the socio-enviro-economic system is totally unreasonable. There should also be measures about social capital performance and natural capital performance ... and while there is a growing amount of talk about these issues, there is little or no numbering of them so that there can be better management and better decisons.

NUMBERING PROGRESS FOR SOCIAL CAPITAL
SOCIAL CAPITAL is about both the individual (Human Capital) and the group (Relationshop Capital)
There are a multitude of factors that go into the build-up of human capital, and another big set of factors that go into relationship capital.
There are also complex feedback loops and interconnections that make logical mathematics difficult, if not impossible.
But what is possible is to assess the STATE of human capital (the aggregation of the individuals) and the STATE of relationship capital (the aggregation of different community and groups) in a relatively simple way at a moment in time.
A useful measure of PROGRESS is to compare the STATE of human capital and the STATE of relationship capital at some time in the past, and then again more recently. The difference is the PROGRESS (or not) that has been achieved.

NUMBERING PROGRESS FOR NATURAL CAPITAL
Though there have been important concerns for decades about the impact on natural capital, there is no widely accepted way of numbering the impact in an easy widely accepted way, and as a result the dangers continue to be effectively ignored.
The idea that Natural Capital was important is not new. Scientists have alerted the public to the problem of depletion and degradation of the natural environment for many decades. A report in 1972 prepared by a team from MIT for the Club of Rome made it clear that the modern economy was depleting natural resources in a manner that was unsustainable.
The book 'Linits to Growth' by Donella Meadows et al
http://www.donellameadows.org/wp-content/userfiles/Limits-to-Growth-digital-scan-version.pdf
Open external link
Other writing by concerned citizens about the downside of modern economic development such as Rachel Carson's Silent Spring about the negative effects of wonder chemicals because of toxicity.
The book 'Silent Spring' by Rachel Carson
http://library.uniteddiversity.coop/More_Books_and_Reports/Silent_Spring-Rachel_Carson-1962.pdf
Open external link

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Quantifying Value
Standard value is key to efficient analysis

The core hypothesis that justifies the development and deployment of TVM is that money profit is not enough, there also has to be value. But value will never the there if value cannot be quantified in a widely accepted way.

If you cannot measure it … you cannot manage it

The TVM solution to this problem is to make use of “standard values” rather like “standard costs” are used in cost accounting … but even this has to be done with care. Value is not a simple metric … but it is a very important one.

Value is subjective … and this is part of of its importance as a key metric of progress and performance. A simplified value construct will not work to guide society to its best performance … or even to know what best performance might be.

Ignoring value … which is essentially what has been done in money accounting and economics certainly simplifies analysis, but over time the result of this is increasingly poor allocation of resources. Value is subjective, and as such its quantification has to have an element of pragmatism in order to be practical.

One part of the solution is to have standard values for everything that is of value … in other words, for everything.

The idea of a standard value in TVM is similar to the concept of standard cost in cost and management accounting. Everything has its standard value computed, just as everything has its standard cost computed. Periodic comparison of actual cost to standard cost makes it possible to have standard costs that reflect the actual cost very closely. Routine management analysis may be done using the standard costs … and the answers are good enough for most day-to-day decisions. Similarly with standard values … they may be used in day-to-day analysis and the answers are good enough, and easy to get.
Price as a proxy for value
Price is often used as a proxy for value … because sometimes the price is close to the value. But this approach to value has many problems of which (1) price is determined in the main by the seller, and (2) the analysis going into determining price usually ignores almost all the elements of the value construct except what value a buyer might place on the item. In other words, you cannot set the price higher than the customer thinks the item has value if you want to sell the item!

This idea that price is best when the price of the item and the value of the item to the buyer is the same is an interesting dynamic … with the result that all value adding then becomes attributed to the business part of the value chain, and none for the consumer. In the end, a damaging economic idea.

Value is everywhere
Examples in every sector

A standard value needs quantification, but not as money value … not as a monetization of the value quantity … but using a separate unit of measure.

Value changes depending on whose perspective is being used … and these changes are complex and difficult to explain. They are not only based on simple economics, but there are cultural and social issues as well.

Every person has their own profile of values … many people may have similar profiles … and within a community there may be only one general profile … or a relatively small number.

There needs to be a large repository of value profiles so that what people think one value is relative to another value. Many of the value ideas will be different … many will be the same. When all the profiles get linked together relatively, it becomes possible to see the aggregate average value profile.

Housing has value … a house has value … part of the value is its role in sheltering the family … part of the value is being a home for the family, the social center of the family … part of its value is the image it gives of the family … part of its role is a contribution to the neighborhood as a whole.

An education has value … part of the value is the socialization learning that children and young people get at school and college … part of the value is what they learn … part of the value is learning how to learn … part of the value is the opportunity expansion that results from being well educated.

Infrastructure has value … part of it is to enable socio-economic activities to take place more easily … a bridge saves people time in getting from one place to another, or getting there at all … a road makes it possible for people and goods to move from place to place efficiently. The value arises because people save time and things can be more productive. In some cases infrastructure makes the community safer. In some case infrastructure makes it possible for a community to expand … or to build some new economic activity in the place.

Health has value … part of the value of health is that good health enables people to live their lives in a far better way than when they are sick. All the things that are possible when a person is health become compromised when there is debilitating sickness.

Low crime has value … quality of life is at its best with no crime, but becomes impaired when there is crime. Low crime has a big social value, that is lost when crime increases. Getting low crime is expensive … police, courts, prisons and remedial programs are high cost parts of the community fabric, but important.

Electricity has value … quality of life is improved with access to electricity … when used electricity is clean … though there are questions about how clean electricity is when it is being generated.

Jobs have value … to the employee, those that are remunerated have a value in the family that is big relative to the same person when they are unemployed and unremunerated. Jobs are interesting in that they are also of value to the employer … every job helps in the process of carrying out the mission of the organization … and build value for the organization.
Things that impact value are everywhere
Things that impact value are everywhere as well … so the framework of metrics needs to be able to handle the multiple characteristic of the value item and how issues impact the matter.

Good health has high value

Good health has a high value … but this is reduced by the onset of illness. Being sick lowers quality of life. Being cured improves quality of life. Being in good health is the desirable norm in the quality of life matrix.

Health in GDP is nonsensical

With modern GDP metrics, the cost of treatment is captured, but nothing else. The erroneous supposition is that the more treatment there is, the stronger socio-economic performance. TVM disagrees profoundly and has a very different approach.

Good health is always desirable … but maybe good health has a different value at different points in ones life. This should be reflected in the way the value matrix comes together. Maybe health value is going to be different for different people who do different jobs. The details are tricky … and they should be respected … and also there should be some simplification so that the system stays workable.

Low crime has high value

Low crime is very desirable and enhances quality of life in a community. In turn low crime has a favorable impact on the desirability of the neighborhood and house prices. Low crime reflects the people who live in the neighborhood and those that come into the neighborhood. Low crime also reflects the capability of the police and law enforcement.

In the quality of life measure, low crime should be the norm, and be a value component. All the various forms of criminality … anti social behavior … are negatives that detract from quality of life.

The cost of police and law enforcement may be needed to have a low crime outcome … but the costs are a negative in the quality of life. That money has to come from somewhere.

Efficient public transit systems have high value

Efficient public transit systems have high value and should be the norm in a well measured society. If the value of having excellent efficient public transit systems is incorporated in quality of life as the default, then the various costs can be set off against this. If there is a good transit system there is a history of investment in the transit infrastructure and the equipment, and an ongoing cost of operating staff, operating costs and maintenance. There is also a cost of congestion that varies according to the state of the transport infrastructure and the performance of the transit system. With a good transit system the desirability of neighborhoods can improve … but not always.

Urban and regional mass transit systems

It is difficult to imagine a modern city without a high performance urban mass transit system as well as regional mass transit systems. Most of these systems are run by government entities that use cash based money accounting, a system that fails completely to keep the value of past investment front and center of performance analysis.

The value of transit systems is a component in quality of life … not having one is a deficit .. and the cost of building one and the cost of running one is also a deficit … the cost of congestion is a deficit. The cost of building and running transit systems is substantial … and the matter of whether this is best paid through a public funding process … bonds, taxes, etc … or by user fees is an important question.

Not funding mass transit adequately, and having the system deteriorate is usually a value destroying outcome. At the same time, allowing high costs and low efficiency in the operation of the system to become the norm is also a value destroying outcome
n8-Quantification-quality-of-life-1.php
In the history of measurement there has been a lot of dialog about the problem of accuracy ... especially in science and engineering. The intellectual effort has been substantial and progress has been made that is very impressive.

But in the history of measurement as it relates to economics and finance there has been little dialog and a number of crucial issues have still to be addressed ... let alone resolved.

Money is widely used as a measure in financial and economic analysis and reporting ... but money is variable and not firmly anchored to anything! At best money ... its price ... is determined by supply and demand, and these in turn are driven by underlying economic performance and global sentiment about one money relative to other moneys.

TVM has chosen to use metrics that are based directly on the underlying economic performance of the community, including the community's potential. At this stage quantification is based on the following:
... Very good is “a”
... Very bad is “z”
... Something in the middles is “m” or “n”

Nuances many be achieved using any letter of the alphabet ... varying shades of good from “a” to “m” ... varying shades of bad from “z” to “n”.

The scale of good or the scale of bad is reflected using a numerical modifier ... thus a very strong good would be “a9” and a very strong bad would be “z9”
n8-Value-quantification-1.php
Value is subjective ... and very difficult to quantify ... but that does not mean that value should be ignored by a socio-economic system of “scorekeeping”. Value is, after all, more than anything else, what determines quality of life.

Putting a number on value! Putting a number on value is difficult ... but it has great utility. As a matter of convenience, the number is also a number for money. Because there are no capital markets that trade in “value” there is no way for value to be monetized. Value quantification is needed if the use of value as a metric is going to succeed. TVM uses the accounting concepts of standards to provide a framework for value quantification.

Value is not the same in all cultures and locations! Culture plays a big role in how value is perceived.

Modern materialism has tended to equate more and more or bigger and bigger with more value ... but that is not the only way value may be perceived. Different cultures in different places may put different values on the same things ... and this should be respected and value optimized based on what is most appreciated in the community.

In TVM, the quantification of value is independent of any money metric. The quantification is a basis for comparing all the different 'values' that go in to make for quality of life.

For example:
The value ... in this case a loss ... is different whan a 1 year old child dies, a 20 year old person dies or an 87 year old person dies. TVM quantifies the difference, recognizing that different people and different communities are likely to make this quantification differently.
For example: A child of 5 years old dies in a rich community in the United States, in a poor community in Africa, or among the large population in China. All of these quantifications are going to be different.

The process of quantification does, however, enable a more objective analysis of what it is that goes into the idea of 'quality of life' and what are needed to improve quality of life.

TVM has value as the core metric. Value is as central to TVM as profit is to money profit corporate reporting systems. The value of a community ... or society ... is the key measure in TVM and a core determinant of how society delivers on the goal of happiness and quality of life. Value must be quantified.
n8-Value-metrics-1.php
Value metrics are important. But value metrics are not easy, because the quantification of metrics is not easy.

Measurement of value has a large subjective component ... but it is still possible to have useful measurement. In fact, because value is so important, it is vital that there are relevant metrics about value.

The metrics of value is independent of dollar money ... currency money.

In TrueValueMetrics values are placed in a structure rather like money is placed in the structure that is double entry accountancy.

By using the concept of standard value ... a concept rather similar to standard costs ... it is possible to compare different programs and see how one program performs relative to another.

In the case of malaria control programs, the goal is to reduce mortality and morbidity. By having a table of standard values it is possible to report that one approach had more value relative to the costs than another.

The perception of value differs from place to place, and also changes over time. The changes are ongoing. Values change over time because of the evolution of society. The TVM set of standard values makes it possible to start a process of understanding value perception better, and also to make value adding the goal of economic interventions.
Value adding ... social value adding
Value adding is a broader concept than profit. Value adding is the difference between the ending value and the initial value. It may also be thought of as the value created less the value consumed.
Value is rarely the same as price. Many things in life with the most “value” are truly priceless ... good health, friends and family, the birth of a child, happiness, and so on. It is a challenge to associate a number with value ... but TVM does this by using a dialog around sets of standard values.
Value consumed is more than the financial costs. Value consumed reflects costs but also includes issues like the damage to the environment ... or the exploitation and consumption of natural resources that have taken millions of years to create as in the petroleum industry.

Value ... financial and social

Capital markets are all about value ... but it is financial value only. A stock has a value based on its financial profit history and profit potential. What the company does for society is not a part of the capital market computation. It is just about profit history and profit potential ... about money flows ... about risk and the safety of money capital. Social value is much more. It is no accident that the phrase “Pursuit of Happiness” is in the founding documents of the USA and not “Chase for Money”. Happiness derives from social values that end up making life worth living. TVM embraces both the financial and the social value and puts both in the metrics of the community.

Unit costs, prices and values are very informative ... they make comparison easy both over time and from place to place. There are some challenges because units of measure and currency exchange rates may confuse ... but when these issues are taken into account, unit costs, prices and values are very powerful.
Value Adding
Cost, price and value / productivity, profit and impact all have quite specific meanings

Three critical metrics in understanding economic activity are: (1) cost, (2) price, and (3) value. The relationship between these numbers determines the performance of almost any economic activity. All of these measures are important ... any one missing and the understanding of the dynamic of societal progress is compromised. These metrics are a part of a further three critical indicators: (1) productivity ... productivity improves when less cost produces more goods or services; (2) profit ... profitability improves when price is increased and cost is decreased; and (3) impact on society ... impact improves when the value increases and the cost decreases.

Value adding is a derivative of value and cost. Value adding may approximate profit when the price reflects value and there are no social costs in addition to the money costs. Value adding is a much better measure of progress and performance than money profit. Value ... that is value to society ... is almost totally excluded from modern financial and economic metrics. The reasons are many including (1) it has a subjective dimension that makes valuation difficult; and, (2) it has a devastating impact on the norms of financial valuation of corporate activity. TVM has value more than profit as the key element in performance.

An economic dynamic that creates value will sustain not only at a present level, but at an increasing level of value creation ... a virtuous outcome. In a simple world it would be easy to plan progress and achieve progress, but in the world of reality there is little that is simple. Besides value creation and a virtuous compounding, there is also value destruction. Value adding takes place whenever something that adds to quality of life occurs ... frequently in small increments

During the 2009 Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) in New York I was asked what I thought of it. My instant response was that it was largely PR, and the value of it was rather modest. I was then bombarded with statistics about how much the CGI had “raised” for global good causes and was made to feel very bad. The previous year “over $1.8 billion had been raised at the CGI”, I was told.
But essentially, I was right. The statistic of how much CGI raises is a very poor metric of CGIs value ... because much of the money described as being raised by the CGI is money that is already going to flow into philanthropic initiatives anyway.


The value of CGI is not how much money the participants talks about, and then gets published as a money raised amount. ... but the fact of the meeting and the cachet of having talked about the project in this forum ... which in turn facilitates fund raising.
n8-Value-elements-of-value-1.php
Importance of value.
Value is the driver of quality of life ... society will be at its best when the available resources are used with a maximum of productivity. A measure like money profit, or cash flow is important for simple sustainability ... but it is the mix of value and profit rather than just profit alone that determines how well society and the economy will perform now and into the future.

What value has value
The idea of the value of value is very difficult. It is particularly difficult to include in any analysis when “value” is perceived differently by almost every individual. Value is personal in the extreme! However, to ignore value as an critical measure means that the results of analysis are essentially meaningless.

Value quantification.
If there was an easy way to quantify value, then it would very much easier to make use of 'value' as a parameter of decision making. TVM does value quantification using a methodology that may well have its origins in the Analystical Hyerarchical Process of the 1980s.

Price and value.
Market price is not a good proxy for value. For some goods and services, price may approximate value, but this is not true more often than it is true. The difference creates important and dangerous distortion on socio-economic decision making which explains some and maybe nearly all of the dysfunction of the modern capitalist laissez faire market economy.

Standard value.
TVM uses standard value to account for value flows in a simple and relevant way. Standard value is a concept derived from standard cost accounting. In TVM, everything has a standard value ... a best estimate of what the value is based on what is known.
For example ... good health has a value
... but people are uncomfortable putting a money number to define a value like this.
Global standard value.
From one perspective the same thing should have the same value everywhere on the planet ... and for this TVM has a global standard value. This is prepared based on a lot of input, but in the end it is a dataset that nobody will relate to ... and for very good reason. People and cultures are very different from place to place.

Community standard value.
The typical community usually has a reasonably common view of value that is based on cultural norms and the traditions of the community. Comparative study of the standard value profile of one community compared to another is a powerful tool for improving understanding about how progress may be optimized.

Ranking of community standard values
A ranking of community standard values helps to clarify a lot about the relevance of the quantification. What people think in terms of ranking should also be reflected in how the assigned money numbers are also showing.
Comparisons.

There is a lot to be learned from comparison of the various standard value datasets.

For example:
... When the value rankings of different communities are compared it is possible to see how various factors change the perception of value ... maybe going beyond the anticipated issues of culture.
... The value standards for the community standard may be compared against the global standard profile to understand where the community is relative to the global average
n8-Value-destruction-1.php

Value destruction is ignored in modern financial accountancy as well as the major macro-economic measures like GDP.

Value destruction is often associated with environmental costs that impact society, but do not have to be incorporated in the financial accounts of the corporate enterprise.

In recent times, more and more environmental regulations have made environmental degradation a cost to the enterprise and a drag on profit ... but the cost to society is still not part of the corporate accountancy and reporting system.

TVM, on the other hand, takes the cost to society and makes the cost explicit and associates this cost directly with the enterprise that is causing the value destruction.

Value destruction compounds to form a vicious cycle of increasingly difficult outcomes. Value destruction may start slowly, but if not corrected the compounding eventually takes hold, and it is very difficult to control.

In the complex reality of the economy, both value creation and value destruction are going on at the same time ... one offsets the other ... but there is always the potential for one of the other to get the upper hand. When it is value destruction that becomes dominant, the socio-economic outcome is catastrophic ... and this is what is happening in most poor settings and in societies where valueless money transactions have replace priceless real transactions.

An economic activity may be profitable, but this does not mean that the economic activity is value adding. Profits may be earned while the activity is value neutral, or the profit may be arising while the activity is destroying value.
n8-Value-creation-1.php

Value creation
There is value creation when existing resources are used and something of more value than the resources used is created. In corporate accounting profit is revenue less cost ... in TVM, value creation is the resultant valueadd less the value consumed.

Value adding and value destruction!
Value adding happens when the resulting value is greater than the value consumed. Value destruction is when the resulting value is less than the value consumed. TVM takes into consideration ALL the issues that impact value to society and the community ... in contrast to the corporate profit measure that only brings into account the money revenues and money costs to compute profit.

Value reporting!
Value reporting needs to be as pervasive as profit reporting. Every organization should be reporting not only its money accounting, but also its value accounting. Capital markets should value stock based on both money profit and value.

Value in Not-for-Profit activities!
The concept of profit has no meaning as a performance measure for not-for-profit activities ... but value has a very real meaning. The TVM value construct applies everywhere in both private and public sector organizations that are working for the public good, but without effective performance metrics.
n8-Value-change-measuring-progress-1.php

There is socio-economic progress when the 'state' of the person, family or community improves. A big component of 'state' is quality of life which in turn is made up of many components.

The elemental entity for analysis of progress and performance is an 'economic activity'. An economic activity consumes resources and creates value. The net of these is the valuadd, and where there is positive valuadd, there is progress.

Most financial accounting is done at the level of an organization. Most economic data are aggregated for the nation, and then disaggregated to lower adminstrative areas and places.

In order for economic activity to be aggregated in a meaningful way, it would be necessary for ALL economic activities to have a functional value accountancy system in place. IN such circumstances it would be possible for the results to be aggregated to either the implementing organizations or to the most appropriate place. Because this is unlikely to be achieved, some alternative approach needs to be adopted.

There is a technique in double entry money profit accountancy that can be used. It used to be referred to as 'incomplete records' and is a way for the financial performance of an enterprise to be reported accurately without having to record in detail all of the transactions that have taken place in a reporting period.

This technique is possible because of the unique and powerful idea of 'double entry' bookkeeping and the associated idea of balance sheet and profit and loss or operating statement. In this framework the 'change in the balance sheet' is equal to the 'profit' reported in the operating statement.

Applying this same idea in the TrueValueMetrics' framework means that valuadd ... in other words, progress ... can be determined by comparison of the 'state' between the beginning and end of a period.
Value Chain Analysis

The value chain analysis techniques may be applied over time. In this case an activity that has costs today creates profit and value tomorrow. Value chain analysis can show how amazingly good big long term investments are for society. The TVM approach brings this into the analysis process in a rigorous way. There are many examples in many sectors of society and the economy.

Education.
The education of a child is a big expense ... but it is an investment that will pay back many times over the life of the person. Value chain analysis shows something of how a cost in early years creates opportunity for benefit in later years ... and could be the basis for economic analysis to justify investment not only by parents, but also by society in education and building human capital for the future.

Health.
Treating disease is another big expense ... and again with an economic dynamic that changes over time. A strategy that invests so that there is no need to treat disease because the disease is controlled or eradicated is much better than one that merely waits and treats the disease when it is debilitating and has all the associated costs. Value chain helps to determine whether prevention rather than cure is the optimum strategy.

Infrastructure.
The building of the US Interstate Highway System is another example. The system cost the US Government more than $100 billion ... but the immediate incremental property values around the country were way more than this ... and the productivity improvement of the national economy way bigger, and long lasting.

Parenting
Maybe the biggest gift to a child are the parents who are way more important than modern society maybe wants to acknowledge. Science seems to be discovering that parents set the stage for the child's development in ways that we do not really understand ... but it is clear that good parenting is a huge contributor to a health socio-economic outcome. This is very valuable, but maybe not easy to quantify.

Community
Beyond family, it is community that makes for quality of life. A good deed done today turns up as a favor returned sometime in the future. People have memory that works, even though society has no way of measuring these important intangible.
n8-Value-chain-over-time-1.php

The value chain analysis techniques may be applied over time. In this case an activity that has costs today creates profit and value tomorrow. Value chain analysis can show how amazingly good big long term investments are for society. The TVM approach brings this into the analysis process in a rigorous way. There are many examples in many sectors of society and the economy.

Education.
The education of a child is a big expense ... but it is an investment that will pay back many times over the life of the person. Value chain analysis shows something of how a cost in early years creates opportunity for benefit in later years ... and could be the basis for economic analysis to justify investment not only by parents, but also by society in education and building human capital for the future.

Health.
Treating disease is another big expense ... and again with an economic dynamic that changes over time. A strategy that invests so that there is no need to treat disease because the disease is controlled or eradicated is much better than one that merely waits and treats the disease when it is debilitating and has all the associated costs. Value chain helps to determine whether prevention rather than cure is the optimum strategy.

Infrastructure.
The building of the US Interstate Highway System is another example. The system cost the US Government more than $100 billion ... but the immediate incremental property values around the country were way more than this ... and the productivity improvement of the national economy way bigger, and long lasting.

Parenting Maybe the biggest gift to a child are the parents who are way more important than modern society maybe wants to acknowledge. Science seems to be discovering that parents set the stage for the child's development in ways that we do not really understand ... but it is clear that good parenting is a huge contributor to a health socio-economic outcome. This is very valuable, but maybe not easy to quantify.

Community
Beyond family, it is community that makes for quality of life. A good deed done today turns up as a favor returned sometime in the future. People have memory that works, even though society has no way of measuring these important intangible.
n8-Value-chain-in-the-supply-chain-1.php

Value Chain From Raw Material to Final Consumer to Eventual Disposal

The value chain from raw material to consumer to final disposal helps to show why some companies are very profitable and others are not. The value chains show how costs accumulate and what profits are extracted from the value chain.

The petroleum value chain helps to explain the various connects and disconnects between the origin of oil in a poor part of the world to gas being used in rich places. How is it that excellent crude oil in the Niger Delta makes some Nigerians super rich, with the country remaining terribly poor. How is it that there is seemingly little rational link between high gas prices at the pump and the costs of producing this gas? How do markets work ... and who do they work for?

The coffee value chain does the same for coffee. How is it that coffee consumed in a retail coffee shop is many times more to buy now than years ago ... but the price paid to farmers for their coffee has increased so very little. Where is the money going? Value chain shows that some of the organizations that were created to make the economic playing field fairer for the farmer have been gamed and have ended up being merely a way of extracting profit from the value chain without doing very much if anything in return.
n8-Value-chain-in-development-1.php

Value chain analysis shows where costs are incurred and value arising.

The normal situation for the past several decades has been that a big part of the money mobilized for relief and development gets disbursed within the donor economy rather than in the beneficiary economy. This is shown in the following graphic:



When valuadd is used as the main metric for progress, then the generalized situation is that for the same amount of economic activity measured in money, there will be much more valuadd in a poor society than in there is in a rich society.
If the objective is to have as much socio-economic progress as possible ... the maximum of valuadd ... then the following would be a more desirable approach. The following graphic shows the improvement in development performance that results from a development process where the bulk of the available financial resources are used in the beneficiary economy.



n8-Value-chain-analysis-1.php

Value chain analysis is a technique that relates cost, price and and profit ... and value consumption and value creation in a complete transaction matrix. The value chain analysis explains the aggregate of value consumption or destruction and the aggregate of value creation and value adding and reconciles the aggregate with the winners and losers at different stages of the value chain.

The value chain analysis may be applied either over time, over geographic space, or between organizational entities. Value chain analysis shows how critical local community based economic activities are to the community and how damaging many profitable global value chains are to society.

Consolidation accounting is a part of this paper because hardly anything is as simple as it seems, and consolidation accounting has the essential critical logic that helps to sort this complexity into its component parts. Community is impacted by many different economic entities and activities, and the way in which these interact and are recorded has been defined comprehensively in the accounting principles associated with consolidations.

Very few transactions are simple an have impact only on the direct participants ... most have other ramifications which are important in the money accounting of the business world, but have even more importance in the context of the combined flows of value and money around the community.

Modern corporate accountancy is complex. Most of the rules apply to the way an organizations reports to the financial stakeholders and, to a much lesser degree, to the public. These reports are the result of complex consolidation that takes into consideration the way the internal and external value chains impact costs, revenues and profits.

Managing these value chains makes it possible for a corporate organization to minimize its exposure to taxes, duties and other regulations that impact its financial performance ... and understanding and having data about value chains makes it possible for the public to hold organizations accountable for their performance in the community and towards society as a whole.

Value chain analysis is used to identify the winners and losers in various parts of the economic structure, and makes it possible to understand the systemic flaws in the way the economy operates. Value chain analysis is used to show cost and profit distribution across multiple areas and organizations as in the petroleum industry, or across time as in the case of education and the student's subsequent career.

TVM uses value chain analysis so that what appears as a success in one part of the value chain can be associated with the impact ... positive and negative ... in other parts of a value chain.

Value chain analysis can be used to identify the winners and losers in various parts of the economic structure, and makes it possible to understand the systemic flaws in the way the economy operates. Value chain analysis is used to show cost and profit distribution across multiple areas and organizations as in the petroleum industry, or across time as in the case of education and the student's subsequent career. Value chain from raw material to consumer is important. It shows why some companies are very profitable and others are not. The value chain show how costs accumulate and profits are extracted from the value chain. For example: Petroleum The TVM petroleum value chain explains the costs and profits between the origin of oil in a poor part of the world to gas being used in rich places. It explains how excellent crude oil in the Niger Delta makes some Nigerians super rich, with the country remaining terribly poor. It explains the links between high gas prices at the pump and production costs ... and how markets work!

Coffee The TVM coffee value chain does the same for coffee. How is it that coffee consumed in a retail coffee shop is many times more to buy now than years ago ... but the price paid to farmers for their coffee has increased so very little. Where is the money going? Value chain shows that some of the organizations that were created to make the economic playing field fairer for the farmer have ended up being merely a way of extracting profit from the value chain without doing anything in return.
n8-Value-1.php
For all practical purposes there is no organized data about value. Value is subjective ... and therefore difficult to quantify using a single number.

The value is arguably far more important than money cost or money price. The challenge with value accounting is how to have quantification of value that is an integral part of the system.

The TVM solution to this is to have elements of value, just as there are elements of cost, and to have standard values that reflect the perception of value that people have. From this it becomes possible to have standard value profiles for a community ... and from this to create reports that reflect the consumption and creation of these values. The difficulty with using value in metrics is that value is subjective and therefore not easy to quantify ... but value is much more at the core of socio-economic performance and quality of life than anything else. Value is what the recipient thinks it is worth. These relationships are key: (1) When value is greater than cost there is value adding; and (2) When cost is greater than value there is value destruction.

Value is subjective ... and therefore difficult to quantify. Even though value is very important, it is not routinely quantified. The challenge with value accounting is how to have value quantified with numerical values that can be an integral part of the system.

The TVM solution to this is to have standard values that reflect the perception of value that people have about all the elements of value ... just as there are elements of cost in financial, cost and management accounting.

From this it becomes possible to quantify standard value for all the value elements and from this to create reports that reflect the consumption and creation of these values.

TVM uses a range of standard value profiles depending on the characteristics of the people and the community. This is a recognition of the fact that people have different views about the value of different things.

Even though quantifying value is challenging because value is subjective it is essential that it is done. Value is much more at the core of socio-economic performance and quality of life than anything else.
Price is not value.
They are two different concepts. Value is often expressed in terms similar to a price ... but they have a different origin. Value has to do with perception ... what someone is willing to pay for something in order to be gratified.

Because the money numbers associated with value are rarely articulated, and not the subject of conversation and news reports, there is a weak set of value information. It is critical that this is changed. Associating a money number to values is regarded as a difficult ... even impossible ... task. However, this is very important if society is to have metrics that reflect what is the most important in society.

Value in markets It is perceived value that sets the price in a market. If value is lower than price, there is no incentive to buy the item. Conversely when value is higher than price, then there is an incentive to buy.

Something may have a low price, but have enormous value to the person using the product. An aspirin may have a low price ... but getting rid of a headache has big value.

Society is in a good place when goods and services have low prices and these goods and services have high value for the community.

BUSINESS CASE FOR TRUE COST ACCOUNTING
from PAGE 18 of Sustainable-Food-Trust-The-Cost-of-American-Food-Report-2016
We are currently paying three times for the food we eat. Firstly, in agricultural subsidy payments which largely promote intensive crop production. Secondly, we pay for the food at its retail value when we buy it in the shop. Finally, we pay for a third time to cover the costs of healthcare, as well as the costs of measures to tackle poverty and environmental degradation.
A case in point is the $250 million in subsidies paid annually to maize producers that results in producing cheap high fructose corn syrup for a booming soft drink industry. This leads to increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes, the costs of which are paid for by society.
Another example is the cost of the restaurant system that denies a living wage and benefits to workers, resulting in billions of dollars worth of tips by consumers, and an additional $16.5 billion annually in public subsidies for food stamps and medication. Increasing the federal minimum worker wage to $12 per hour would be equivalent to an average household increase in daily food cost of just 10 cents a day.
Responsible investment strategies are growing in the US but investors are dissatisfied with current environmental, social and governance disclosures. Profit-and-loss accounts must include societal costs in order to enhance market efficiency and manage risks related to resource scarcity, climate change or eventual regulations on product or consumer safety. True cost accounting brings all environmental, social and economic strands into a uniform strategic approach, allowing decisions that safeguard soils, plants, animals and people, while simultaneously producing positive business results.

http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Food/SustainableFood/Sustainable-Food-Trust-The-Cost-of-American-Food-Report-2016.pdf
Open PDF ... Sustainable-Food-Trust-The-Cost-of-American-Food-Report-2016

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTANCY
CONVENTIONAL FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AND RELATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ARE VERY POWERFUL ... BUT ONLY ABOUT PROFIT PERFORMANCE AND FINANCIAL CAPITAL
Corporate financial management and management information enables rapid decision making about everything associated with corporate profit performance.
There is nothing like it for the impact on society and the impact on the environment ... the externalities are ignored.
The concepts of double entry accounting are ancient, but they are the key to the effectiveness of accountancy as an analytical tool.
More about FINANCIAL ACCOUNTANCY Open L0700-MA-FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTANCY

TRUE VALUE METRICS
ACCOUNTABILITY FOR EVERYTHING USING DOUBLE ENTRY ACCOUNTING FOR EVERYTHING
Conventional financial accounting uses money as its unit of account, and concerns itself mainly with money revenues, costs and profits without taking into account the 'externalities' which impact society, natural resources and the environment.
The True Value Metrics (Multi Dimension Impact Accounting) initiative builds on the powerful well-established double entry accounting construct to account for everything, giving accountability for both the Triple Bottom Line (i.e. People / Planet / Profit) and ALL of CAPITAL (i.e. HUMAN CAPITAL, NATURAL CAPITAL and CREATED PHSYICAL AND INTANGIBLE CAPITALS) and not just MONEY PROFIT and FINANCIAL CAPITAL.
TVM has a comprehensive architecture that enables coherent progress and performance reporting for ORGANIZATIONS, PEOPLE (Individuals and families), PLACES, PROCESSES, PRODUCTS and STREAMS.
The purpose of TVM is to enable better decision making to build better societies and a sustainable world. An important part of the initiative is to facilitate better timely decisions by individual people.
TVM uses multiple UNITS OF ACCOUNT rather than only money and STANDARD VALUE PROFILES for the PRODUCTS that flow through the system
More about TRUEVALUEMETRICS (TVM) Open L070-TVM

CORE CONCEPTS
CORE CONCEPTS FROM ACCOUNTANCY, ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS AND SCIENCE
There are several core concepts in science, engineering and accountancy that have been embedded into the design of True Value Impact Accounting.
The Double Entry construct is one of the most important. This idea ensures that there is a rigorous connection between the change in STATE and the associated activities or FLOWS. This idea mirrors some of the basic thinking in engineering thermodynamics and science.
The accountancy profession enagaged in assurance in large part to ensure that reported performance reflected the facts and the related data about the facts. This remains important as the proligeration of data makes validation of the data and the associated analysis and reporting more and more critical ... and perhaps even moreso as AI and Big Data become more widely deployed.
More about CORE CONCEPTS Open L07O-CC-CORE-CONCEPTS

L0700-CC-CONTINUOUS-IMPROVEMENT
L0700-CC-CONTINUOUS-IMPROVEMENT
Open L0700-CC-CONTINUOUS-IMPROVEMENT
COMPARISON TVIA -V- CONVENTIONAL-ACCOUNTANCY
L0700-CFA-comparison-with-TVIA
Open L0700-CFA-comparison-with-TVIA
L0700-MT-MNGT-ACCOUNTING
L0700-MT-MNGT-ACCOUNTING
Open L0700-MT-MNGT-ACCOUNTING
L0700-CC-COST-PRICE-VALUE
L0700-CC-COST-PRICE-VALUE
Open L0700-CC-COST-PRICE-VALUE
L0700-CC-DATA-AT-THE-CENTER
L0700-CC-DATA-AT-THE-CENTER
Open L0700-CC-DATA-AT-THE-CENTER
L0700-CC-FEEDBACK
L0700-CC-FEEDBACK
Open L0700-CC-FEEDBACK
L0700-CC-PROFIT-AND-LOSS-ACCOUNT
L0700-CC-OPERATIONS-PandL-ACCOUNT PLACEHOLDER
Open L0700-CC-PROFIT-AND-LOSS-ACCOUNT
L0700-CC-PROCESSES
L0700-CC-PROCESS
Open L0700-CC-PROCESSES
L0700-CC-PRODUCTS
L0700-CC-PRODUCTS
Open L0700-CC-PRODUCTS
L0700-CC-PROGRESS-PERFORMANCE
L0700-CC-PROGRESS-PERFORMANCE
Open L0700-CC-PROGRESS-PERFORMANCE
L0700-CC-BALANCE-SHEET
L0700-CC-BALANCE-SHEET PLACEHOLDER !!!
Open L0700-CC-BALANCE-SHEET
L070-RE-REPORTING ENTITIES
L070-RE-REPORTING-ENTITIES
Open L070-RE-REPORTING-ENTITIES
L070-UA-UNITS-OF-ACCOUNT
L070-UA-UNITS-OF-ACCOUNT
Open L070-UA-UNITS-OF-ACCOUNT

REPORTING ENTITIES
REPORTING ENTITIES
REPORTING FOR ORGANIZATIONS, PEOPLE, PLACES, PROCESSES, PRODUCTS, STREAMS

Also PROJECTS, PROGRAMS and POLICIES

In conventional accounting there are established rules for reporting for the reporting entity. For example, all corporate business organizations report financial performance including the transactions that relate to the organization but excluding transactions that are outsie the 'reporting envelope'. Rules have been established to handle complex corporate structures involving subsidiaries that are both wholly owned, and those with outside stockholders. In TVIA these ideas are expanded to enable coherent reporting not only for the business organization but for all the various entities that make up the complete socio-enviro-economic system.
Open L0700-TVM-RE-REPORTING-ENTITIES
ORGANIZATIONS
PURPOSE SHOULD BE MORE THAN JUST MAXIMIZING PROFIT
Open L0700-RE-ORGANIZATIONS
PEOPLE
THE MAIN PURPOSE OF EVERYTHING IS TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR PEOPLE
Open L0700-RE-PEOPLE
PLACES
WHERE EVERYTHING COMES TOGETHER ... THE PEOPLE LIVE. ORGANIZATIONS PRODUCE AND POLLUTE
Open L0700-RE-PLACES
PROCESSES
WHERE AMAZING TECHNOLOGY SHOULD BE APPLIED FOR COMPREHENSIVE EFFICIENCY
Open L0700-RE-PROCESSES
PRODUCTS
PRODUCTS FLOW THROUGH THE SYSTEM, AND THROUGH USE DELIVER VALUE TO PEOPLE AND SOCIETY
Open L0700-RE-PRODUCTS
STRANDS
EVERYTHING HAS AN IMPACT ON EVERYTHING ELSE
PORTFOLIOS
Investor decisions are critical for better business ESG performance
Open L0700-RE-PORTFOLIOS
PROJECTS
Appropriate for activities that are time limited
PROGRAMS
Needed for program accountability
Open L0700-RE-PROGRAMS
POLICY
Needed for accountability with respect to policy
Open L0700-RE-POLICY

UNITS OF ACCOUNT
MORE POWERFUL THAN MONETIZING IMPACT
UNITS OF ACCOUNT
Conventional financial accounting uses money as its unit of account, and there are established methods for the use of multiple currencies when this is needed because of the nature of the business.
With TVIA, multiple UNITS OF ACCOUNT are used in a similar way to account for the way in which different activities impact ALL the CAPITALS that make up the SOCIO-ENVIRO-ECONOMIC SYSTEM. This is more powerful and more flexible than the idea of valuing everything using money and markets
Open L070-UA-UNITS-OF-ACCOUNT
MONEY
Long history as the foundation for ALL economic measurement ... but in need of complementary metrics to address all issues
Open L0700-UA-MONEY
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR LIFE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
LIFE and QUALITY OF LIFE are the most important measure of PROGRESS and PERFORMANCE
Open L0700-UA-HUMAN-CAPITAL
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - LAND
LAND IS LIMITED and there are many alternative uses that are required in a sustainable system.
Open L0700-UA-LAND
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - WATER
WATER is vital for human life as well as for production in both people built systems and in natural systems
Open L0700-UA-WATER
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - AIR
Degradation of CLEAN AIR has consequences including deterioration of human health
Open L0700-UA-AIR
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - CLIMATE / GHG
Changes in the ATMOSPHERE as a result of Green-House-Gas (GHG) emissions are changing climate behavior with huge existential implications.
Open L0700-UA-CLIMATE-GHG
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - BIODIVERSITY
Changes in the ATMOSPHERE as a result of Green-House-Gas (GHG) emissions are changing climate behavior with huge existential implications.
Open L0700-UA-BIODIVERSITY
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - ECO-SYSTEM SERVICES
Changes in the ATMOSPHERE as a result of Green-House-Gas (GHG) emissions are changing climate behavior with huge existential implications.
Open L0700-UA-ECOSYSTEM-SERVICES
A UNIT OF ACCOUNT FOR NATURAL CAPITAL - NATURAL RESOURCE DEPLETION
Changes in the ATMOSPHERE as a result of Green-House-Gas (GHG) emissions are changing climate behavior with huge existential implications.
Open L0700-UA-NATURAL-RESOURCE-DEPLETION

STANDARD VALUE PROFILES
AN OPEN ACCESS DATABASE FOR STANDARD VALUE PROFILES FOR EVERYTHING
STANDARD VALUE PROFILES
AN OPEN ACCESS DATABASE FOR STANDARD VALUE PROFILES FOR EVERYTHING
Open L070-SV-STANDARD-VALUE-PROFILES
STANDARD VALUE PROFILE DATABASE
CRITICAL DATA ABOUT THE TRUE COSTS AND VALUE OF EVERY PRODUCT ON THE PLANET
Well managed companies know a lot about every product that is flowing into their organizations and being produced for sale. There is nothing like this level of knowedgle about the products that are flowing through society and having impact on people and the environment.
In companies one technique for documenting knowledge about products is the idea of Standard Costs which is powerful and relatively low cost. In the TVIA data architecture, the equivalent are STANDARD VALUE PROFILES.



METRICS
WITHOUT MEASURES, THERE IS NO MANAGEMENT / MEASURES FOR EVERYTHING ... NOT MERELY MONEY

How we talk about progress and performance ... or not? When numbers about state, progress and performance are missing, then there is no conversation that is grounded in reality and it becomes easy to promulgate 'fake news' and the appearance of good performance without much reality.

TRUE VALUE IMPACT ACCOUNTING (TVIA)
ABOUT TRUE VALUE IMPACT ACCOUNTING ... STATE, PROGRESS AND PERFORMANCE FOR EVERYTHING
GO TOP
TRUE VALUE METRICS
A COMPREHENSIVE COHERENT ARCHITECTURE FOR THE METRICS WE NEED FOR THE 21ST CENTURY
An accounting system based on the essential core concepts of double entry accounting
Multi dimension, multi perspective taking into account everything
All the capitals, not just financial capital
Open L07-TVIA
TVM for COMPANIES Open L0700-TVM-COMPANIES
TVM for GOVERNMENTS Open L0700-TVM-GOVERNMENTS
TVM ... IMPACT ACCOUNTING Open L0700-TVM-IMPACT-ACCOUNTING
TVM ... Management Accounting Open L0700-TVM-MNGT-ACCOUNTING
TVM ... NGO Accounting Open L0700-TVM-NGO-ACCOUNTING
TVM for NGOs Open L0700-TVM-NGOs
TVM for PLACES Open L0700-TVM-PLACES
TVM for SMEs Open L0700-TVM-SMEs
TVM ... Value Accounting Open L0700-TVM-VALUE-ACCOUNTING

INITIATIVES DEVELOPING METRICS
SEVERAL HUNDRED ORGANIZATIONS INVOLDED IN DEVELOPING / APPLYING METRICS
GO TOP
METRICS ... A COLLECTION OF INITIATIVES RELATED TO METRICS
SEVERAL HUNDRED ORGANIZATIONS INVOLDED IN DEVELOPING / APPLYING METRICS
Open L0200-METRICS
n8-METRICS-ByOrganization
n8-METRICS-ByOrganization
Open n8-METRICS-ByOrganization
n8-METRICS-ByPeople
n8-METRICS-ByPeople
Open n8-METRICS-ByPeople
n8-METRICS-ByTheme
n8-METRICS-ByTheme
Open n8-METRICS-ByTheme

THE MONEY METRIC
How we talk about progress and performance ... or not. When numbers about progress and performance are missing, then there is no conversation that is grounded in reality and it becomes easy to promulgate 'fake news' and the appearance of good performance without much reality.
GO TOP

What is money?
When money serves as both a medium of exchange and a store of value it cannot also serve as a measure of the value and have much measurement meaning.
Money is efficient as a medium of exchange.
Money also works as a store of value as long as the idea of money is trusted to have value. The importance of this trust cannot be overstated.
In order to measure the value of intangibles of all sorts, the solution is to use UNIT OF ACCOUNT specific to the characteristic of the intangible element and what it does.

MONEY-CURRENCY
L0M00-MONEY-CURRENCY
Open L0M00-MONEY-CURRENCY

Open L0700-MX-MONEY-CURRENCY

SPECIALIZED SYSTEMS FOR ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING
Examples of many different types of accounting and reporting
GO TOP
CARBON-ACCOUNTING
L0M00-CARBON-ACCOUNTING
Open L0M00-CARBON-ACCOUNTING
ENVIRONMENTAL-ACCOUNTING
L0M00-ENVIRONMENTAL-ACCOUNTING
Open L0M00-ENVIRONMENTAL-ACCOUNTING
SUSTAINABILITY-ACCOUNTING
L0M00-SUSTAINABILITY-ACCOUNTING
Open L0M00-SUSTAINABILITY-ACCOUNTING
ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE
L0M00-ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE
... GDP
... GPI
Open L0M00-ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE of the ORGANIZATION
L0M00-FINANCIAL
Open L0M00-FINANCIAL
MANAGEMENT METRICS
L0M00-MANAGEMENT
Open L0M00-MANAGEMENT
NATIONAL LEVEL PERFORMANCE
L0M00-NATIONAL
Open L0M00-NATIONAL
ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE / GDP (GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT)
L0M00-GDP
Open L0M00-ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE
ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE / GPI (GENUINE PROGRESS INDICATOR)
L0M00-GPI
Open L0M00-ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE
WORLD BANK / UNITED NATIONS / OECD METRICS
A huge amount of data at the country level ... rather little below this level
GO TOP

UNITED NATIONS and MANAGEMENT METRICS
The United Nations does a lot of 'big picture' metrics ... but much less about management metrics suited to making better decisions
GO TOP

SDGs - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
SDGs - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
The 17 Sustainable Development Goals were launched by the United Nations in 2015 together with more than 120 indicators of progress as a replacement fore the NDGs. An important criticism of the SDGs is that they represent discontinuity from the MDGS to the SDGs and too much of an opportunity to lose much of the momentum that was in place for the MDGs. For more on this, see the link ...
Open L0700-MG-SDGs

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs)

1013 507
Open L0700-MG-MDGs

OVERVIEW
EARLY HISTORY OF THINKING ABOUT BETTER METRICS

A recognition that conventoinal money based financial accounting could not do accountability for a complex system
OVERVIEW / HISTORY
OVERVIEW HISTORY
OVERVIEW-HISTORY-0
Open L070-OVERVIEW-HISTORY-0

STOCK MARKET METRICS
The business media reports on movements in stock markets every 15 minutes ... there is nothing remotely like it for the performance of people, society or the environment
GO TOP

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
Dow from 1998 to 2016
An impressive increase in the index ... but what does it really mean?
In large part the profits of business increased while the wealth of society as a whole was diminishing.
This is the behavior that one must expect when the only management measure that is used everywhere is money profit performance for organizations, and money income and financial wealth for individuals.
Open exernal link
Dow from 1927 to 2017 adjusted for consumer prices (CPI)
The Dow index has increased by an impressive amount over the long term ... but it hardly represents any significant reality. There are only a very few large cap stocks and these are changed from time to time in a way that eliminates the failing companies. The S&P 500 is a singificantly more represeantative index.
The Dow ... We’re Already at Dow 30000, You Just Don’t Know It
The blue-chip index is a poor measure of what investors are doing
By JAMES MACKINTOSH Updated Jan. 25, 2017 2:06 p.m. ET
It’s time to ditch the Dow. After 120 years, the venerable Dow Jones Industrial Average is an embarrassing anachronism, abandoned by professionals and beloved only by a media ...
'https://www.wsj.com/articles/were-already-at-dow-30000-you-just-dont-know-it-1485362316'
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The S&P Index from 1956 to 2017

THE FINANCING OF THE BANKING SECTOR
The financing of the banking sector is underwritten by the unusual arrangements that are Central Banks
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Central Bank asset growth from 2006 to 2016

'http://inflation.us/central-bank-balance-sheet-assets-hit-record-high/'
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THE FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
The financing of international development assistance has been both rather modest and also quite ineffective. More and better are both needed.
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Segmentation of FDI fund flows
The financing of international development assistance has been both rather modest and also quite ineffective. More and better are both needed.
Remittances are one of the most important area of growth and likely one of the most efficient in terms of delivering poverty reduction at a low cost. It can also be noted that the banking sector and financial services industry charges very high prices for a service that is vital but low cost for the banks!

BANK LENDING BY SECTOR
Bank lending by sector is more about credit worthyness than impactfulness
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UK Bank Lending by Sector

SOCIAL PROGRESS
SOCIAL PROGRESS IMPERATIVE
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Social-Progress-Index-2017-Executive-Summary.pdf
by MICHAEL E. PORTER AND SCOTT STERN with MICHAEL GREEN

Social progress is the capacity of a society to meet the basic human needs of its citizens, establish the building blocks that allow citizens and communities to enhance and sustain the quality of their lives, and create the conditions for all individuals to reach their full potential.
Characteristics of the Social Progress measures:
1. Exclusively social and environmental indicators: Our aim is to measure social progress directly, rather than utilize economic proxies or outcomes. By excluding economic indicators, we can, for the first time, rigorously and systematically analyze the relationship between economic development (measured for example by GDP per capita) and social development
2. Outcomes not inputs: Our purpose is to measure the outcomes that matter to the lives of real people, not the inputs. For example, we want to measure a country’s health and wellness achieved, not how much effort is expended nor how much the country spends on healthcare.
3. Holistic and relevant to all countries: We strive to create a holistic measure of social progress that encompasses the many aspects of the health of societies.
4. Actionable: The Social Progress Index aims to be a practical tool that will help leaders and practitioners in government, business, and civil society to implement policies and programs that will drive faster social progress. To achieve that goal, we measure outcomes in a granular way that focuses on specific areas that can be implemented directly.
The 2017 Social Progress Index is structured around 12 components and 50 distinct indicators. The framework not only provides an aggregate country score and ranking, but also allows benchmarking on specific areas of strength and weakness. Transparency of measurement based on a comprehensive framework allows changemakers to set strategic priorities, acting upon the most pressing issues in their societies.
Open PDF ... Social-Progress-Index-2017-Executive-Summary
Social-Progress-Index-2017-Findings-Report
by MICHAEL E. PORTER AND SCOTT STERN with MICHAEL GREEN

Traditional measures of national income, such as GDP per capita, fail to capture the overall progress of societies.
The Social Progress Index rigorously measures country performance on a wide range of aspects of social and environmental performance, which are relevant for countries at all levels of economic development. It enables an assessment of not just absolute country performance but relative performance compared to a country’s economic peers.
Governments and businesses have the tools to track social and environmental performance rigorously, and make better public policy and investment choices.
TBP/TVIA observation: The weakness of the Social Progress Imperative initiative is that it assumes that measurement at the country level gives meaningful incentive to change behavior to achieve better outcomes. The broad concept is very good, but there needs to be complementary granular measurements (indicators) that can be used at specific places, in specific organizations and for individuals and families. This is not easy, but it is what is needed for fast progress.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/SPI/Social-Progress-Index-2017-Findings-Report.pdf'
Open PDF ... Social-Progress-Index-2017-Findings-Report
Social-Progress-Index-2017-Methodology-Report
by SCOTT STERN, AMY WARES and TAMAR EPNER

Social Progress defined as the capacity of a society to meet the basic human needs of its citizens, establish the building blocks that allow citizens and communities to enhance and sustain the quality of their lives, and create the conditions for all individuals to reach their full potential.

Framework comprising three architectural components:
(l) Dimensions represent the broad conceptual categories that define social progress. The Index is calculated as the equally-weighted average of a country’s score on each of three dimensions.
(2) Within each dimension are components: four unique but related concepts that together make up each dimension. A country’s dimension score is calculated as the equally-weighted average of the four components in that dimension.
(3) Each component is composed of indicators that measure as many valid aspects of the component as possible. These indicators are aggregated using a weighted average, where the weights are determined by principal component analysis.
Open PDF ... Social-Progress-Index-2017-Methodology-Report

Reporting 3.0
Navigation to more resources related to Reporting 3.0
Open L0500-Reporting-3-0

To Monetize or Not to Monetize
The use of money as a measure is a problem for many reasons.
(1) money changes in value depending on markets and supply and demand.
(2) a different framing of money is used in different places ... there are multiple currencies and a complex foreign exchange market that further aggravates the problem of changing size of a money unit.
TVM advocates for metrics that are based on constancy over time along the lines of the International System of Units (SI). The multiple definitiions of the units over time reflect more accuracy in the definition, that is more constancy rather than changes in the size of the units.
Distance is measured in units of distance like meters (metres) which do not change over time. The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted where the meter is defined to be the distance light travels in 1 / 299,792,458 seconds.
Mass is measured using the kilogram which is one of the seven SI base units and one of three which is defined ad hoc (i.e. without reference to another base unit). The kilogram is 1000 grams (g), first defined in 1795 as one cubic decimeter of water at the melting point of ice. However, because precise measurement of a decimeter of water at the proper temperature and pressure was difficult, in 1889 the kilogram was redefined as the mass of the international prototype kilogram of cast iron, and thus became independent of the meter and the properties of water.
A4S-Practical-ways-to-integrate-sustainability-into-business-decision-making-CFO-guides-160408
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Initiatives/A4S/A4S-Practical-ways-to-integrate-sustainability-into-business-decision-making-CFO-guides-160408.pdf'
Open PDF ... A4S-Practical-ways-to-integrate-sustainability-into-business-decision-making-CFO-guides-160408
More from Accounting for Sustainability Open L0500-A4S

Huge demand ... huge supply ... Technology and economics is the problem
This report prepared in 2006 by Jeff Tsao (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science), Nate Lewis (California Institute of Technology), and George Crabtree (Argonne National Laboratory) answers a series of questions regarding the potential of the sun to supply energy to the world. The questions are drawn in large part from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Science’s recent report on Basic Research Needs in Solar Energy Utilization (BES 2005). The answers are given in a format suitable for a lay technical audience, and are supplemented by detailed calculations and comprehensive references.
TPB note: While this paper is technically interesting, the idea that the world might have linear GDP growth is a catastrophic idea. On this assumption there is a very high probability there will be some sort of existential crisis that will change everything!
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Energy/Sun/Sun-energy-facts-Sandia.pdf' Open PDF ... Sun-energy-facts-Sandia.pdf



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