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Date: 2018-11-20 Page is: DBtxt001.php L070-KE-KEY-EVENTS

HISTORY / KEY EVENTS
TIPPING POINTS / CHANGES IN DIRECTION

EVENTS: FOR THE WORLD
THE MACRO SETTING FOR THE LIFE OF EVERYONE
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THE FIRST WORLD WAR / THE GREAT WAR GO TOP

THE FIRST WORLD WAR ... THE GREAT WAR
The First World War ... The Great War ... The war to end all wars ... was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[6][7] Over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries still extant at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of the Second World War only twenty-one years later.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I Open External Link

THE TREATY OF VERSAILLE
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles that ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles set the stage for the Second World War. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required 'Germany [to] accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage' during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion in 2018). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes (a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference), predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a 'Carthaginian peace'—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since then, have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles Open External Link

EVENTS: FOR A NATION
EVENTS THAT CHANGE THE TRAJECTORY OF A NATION
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EVENTS: FOR THE PLACE / COMMUNITY
EVENTS THAT IMPACT THE PLACES WHERE WE LIVE
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EVENTS: FOR THE INDIVIDUAL
EVENTS THAT CHANGE THE LIFE OF AN INDIVIDUAL PERSON
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SOCIETY
A very important field of study ... but largely outmoded and increasingly wrong for the modern world
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ECONOMICS
A very important field of study ... but largely outmoded and increasingly wrong for the modern world
GO TOP

ECONOMICS IS FAILING TO DRIVE EFFECTIVE POLICY
Economists identify trends ... but do little to influence policy options
Part of the problem is that the metrics of economic performance are wrong.

WHAT ABOUT QUALITY OF LIFE
SHOULD BE LESS ABOUT FINANCIAL WEALTH AND MORE ABOUT HAPPINESS
INEQUALITY
A GROWING ECONOMIC ISSUES SINCE THE 1970s ... COMPLETELY IGNORED BY POLICY MAKERS!
Much more about INEQUALITY Open L0700-IS-SO-Inequality

SCIENCE GO TOP

DNA
TPB Note: I attended a lecture when I was at Cambridge in the late 1950s where Crick and Watson were presenting their work on DNA sequencing. At the time I was near the completion of my engineering studies and considering broadening my education to study economics. I recall a massive 'Lego' model of the DNA helix on their stage, and observing to a friend afterwards that I had been completely unimpressed by almost everything they had talked about! So much for my perception!
Later, sometime in the 1980s I attended a lecture given by Watson (I think) at the New York Library that updated the progress that had been made up to that point on the understanding the human genome. This time I was impressed by the modesty of the presentation, which embraced the idea that only a very tiny amount of what there was to know had yet been uncovered and understood. The metaphor used was that it was like opening a PC, and learning that it was the chip that was the driver ... but not having any idea about the operating system or anything else. This was about the time that Bill Gates was on record observing that 512K of memory should be enough for anyone! By this time, I was starting to understand the implications of modern bio-science and its potential for better health.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Watson Open external link
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Crick Open external link

Lasers
TPB Note: Around 1962 I went to a lecture at the Royal Institution in London where a laser was going to be demonstrated. I was told that this demonstration of a laser was being done in the same room that Faraday had demonstrated electricity some decades before. The room was quite large ... essentially a lecture hall that had a width of around 100 feet. At the front of the room pretty much stretching from one side of the room to the other was the apparatus. It was explained to us that laser light was not like regular light, but was pulsing in lock step rather than randomly. The system was turned on ... and after quite a time, there was a huge bang and a balloon on the other side of the room burst.
Fast forward ... the idea that lasers are now ubiquitous is very thought provoking ... and the importance of lasers in all sorts o technical applications.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser Open external link

Optical fiber
TPB Note: In the late 1960s, optical fiber was emerging. I was aware of some of the talk, but it was seeing a decorative lamp using optical fiber that first got me to pay attention.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber Open external link

Digital Communications
TPB Note: Early in the 1970s I was the budget manager for Gulton Industries, parent company of Data Systems Inc. Data Systems was a cutting edge technology company which was supplying communications equiment for NASA's Apollo Program. This is where I first learned about Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and its efficiency relative to conventional analog communications signals.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation Open external link

THE SECOND WORLD WAR GO TOP

THE SECOND WORLD WAR
The Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most global war in history; it directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of total war, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of which were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, starvation, disease, and the first use of nuclear weapons in history.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II
Open External Link

The London Blitz
The Daily Mail newspaper prepared a fascinating set of composite images on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the end of the London Blitz on May 17, 2018
TPB Note: I was 3 years old when at the height of the blitz in 1973. Later in the war I was old enough to understand something of the destruction that was happening, but not old enough to undersand that people were getting maimed and killed. However, it has given me an intense dislike for war, and especially bombing, especially of urban areas and civilian populations. I am appalled at the widespread use of bombing in the modern world, and the relatively weak global diplomacy that has failed abysmally to control violence from both terrorists and military organizations.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3579508/London-Blitz-Fascinating-pictures-then.html Open external link
As it was in WWII Same location 70+ years later
As it was in WWII Same location 70+ years later
As it was in WWII Same location 70+ years later

VOLANS BREAKTHROUGH ANALYSIS
LONG WAVE ECONOMIC CYCLES - 1800 TO 2010
Long Wave Economic Cycles
Rolling 10-year yield on the S&P 500 from 1814 to March 2009 (%PA)


Source: Volans: Breakthrough Business Models Report, September 2016
More about the Volans breakthrough work and the long cycles Open L0500-Volans

9/11
HISTORIC EVENT ... REMEMBERERING 9/11 ... 17 years on in 2018 Open txt00015593



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