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Date: 2018-05-22 Page is: DBtxt001.php L07-EVENTS-HISTORY

EVENTS / HISTORY
TIPPING POINTS / CHANGES IN DIRECTION

EVENTS: FOR THE WORLD
THE MACRO SETTING FOR THE LIFE OF EVERYONE
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THE FIRST WORLD WAR ... THE GREAT WAR
The First World War ... The Great War ... The war to end all wars ... was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[6][7] Over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war (including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries still extant at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of the Second World War only twenty-one years later.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I
Open External Link
THE TREATY OF VERSAILLE
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles that ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles set the stage for the Second World War. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required 'Germany [to] accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage' during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion in 2018). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes (a British delegate to the Paris Peace Conference), predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a 'Carthaginian peace'—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that, since then, have been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles
Open External Link
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
The Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most global war in history; it directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of total war, the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of which were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, starvation, disease, and the first use of nuclear weapons in history.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II
Open External Link

EVENTS: FOR A NATION
EVENTS THAT CHANGE THE TRAJECTORY OF A NATION
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EVENTS: FOR THE PLACE / COMMUNITY
EVENTS THAT IMPACT THE PLACES WHERE WE LIVE
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EVENTS: FOR THE INDIVIDUAL
EVENTS THAT CHANGE THE LIFE OF AN INDIVIDUAL PERSON
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SOCIETY
A very important field of study ... but largely outmoded and increasingly wrong for the modern world
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ECONOMICS
A very important field of study ... but largely outmoded and increasingly wrong for the modern world
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ECONOMICS IS FAILING TO DRIVE EFFECTIVE POLICY
Economists identify trends ... but do little to influence policy options
A big part of the problem is that the metrics of economic performance are wrong.

GDP ... A DYSFUNCTIONAL METRIC
Economic Metrics ... If the GDP is Up, Why is America Down?
This Monthly Atlantic Magazine essay written in 1995 by Clifford Cobb, Ted Halstead, and Jonathan Rowe explains how the GDP metric measures the wrong things
Open file 0452
Economic Metrics ... more about GDP
A most dysfunctional metric
Open L0700-MT-GDP

Economics ... Dysfunctional Metrics
Harpers ... READINGS — From the June 2008 issue ... Our Phony Economy
Open file 10909 Open PDF

THE UK ECONOMY AND GDP
GDP/UK-SNA-illegalactivitiesarticlefinalf_tcm77-365319
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/GDP/UK-SNA-illegalactivitiesarticlefinalf_tcm77-365319.pdf'
Open PDF ... GDP/UK-SNA-illegalactivitiesarticlefinalf_tcm77-365319
GDP/UK-SNA-dcp171766_365274
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/GDP/UK-SNA-dcp171766_365274.pdf'
'http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_365274.pdf'
Open PDF ... GDP/UK-SNA-dcp171766_365274 Open external link
UK National Accounts
Impact of ESA95 Changes on Current Price GDP Estimates
'http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_365274.pdf'
Open external link

Estimates of World GDP, One Million B.C. – Present J. Bradford De Long ... Department of Economics, U.C. Berkeley
Massive change in the last 800 years ... and especially in the last 200
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Economics/GDP-Bradford-De-Long-Estimates-1998-Paper.pdf'
Open PDF ... GDP-Bradford-De-Long-Estimates-1998-Paper
Our-Phony-Economy-HarpersMagazine-2008-06-0082042
OUR PHONY ECONOMY By Jonathan Rowe, from testimony delivered March 12 before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Subcommittee on Interstate Commerce. Rowe is codirector of West Marin Commons,a community-organizing group, in California.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Economics/GDP/Our-Phony-Economy-HarpersMagazine-2008-06-0082042.pdf'
Open PDF ... Our-Phony-Economy-HarpersMagazine-2008-06-0082042
Kitov-and-Kitov-on-GDP

Per-capita-GDP-for-13-countries-1870-2010.png Real GDP per capita since 1870 / Ivan Kitov, Institute for the Geospheres’ Dynamics, RAS / Oleg Kitov, University of Oxford
.... The most important [finding] is that all slopes (except that for Australia after 1950) of the regression lines obtained for the annual increments of real GDP per capita are small and statistically insignificant, i.e. one cannot reject the null hypothesis of a zero slope and thus constant increment. Hence the growth in real GDP per capita is a linear one since 1870 with a break in slope between 1940 and 1950.
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/GDP/Kitov-and-Kitov-on-GDP.pdf'
Open PDF ... Kitov-and-Kitov-on-GDP.pdf
GDP-NSF-GOV-RandD-Recognized-as-Investment-in-US
Expenditures for research and development are now capitalized—incorporated as investment—in the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) and other national income and product accounts (NIPAs) produced and published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA).
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/GDP/GDP-NSF-GOV-RandD-Recognized-as-Investment-in-US.pdf'
Open PDF ... GDP-NSF-GOV-RandD-Recognized-as-Investment-in-US

GPI ... Genuine Progress Indicator
Way better than GDP ... but not widely used

Genuine Progress Indicator ... Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genuine_progress_indicator
Open external link
Metrics ... The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
The Genuine Progress Indicator - A Principled Approach to Economics ... The Pembina Institute ...
Open file 2968
The Genuine Progress Indicator 2006, A Tool for Sustainable Development
33 page report by Dr. John Talberth, Clifford Cobb, and Noah Slattery
The Genuine Progress Indicator - A Principled Approach to Economics ... The Pembina Institute ...
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/GPI/GPI-2006.pdf'
Redefining Progress created the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) in 1995 as an alternative to the gross domestic product (GDP).
http://rprogress.org/sustainability_indicators/genuine_progress_indicator.htm
Open file 12754 Open PDF ... GPI-2006.pdf Open external link
GPI-economics
'http://truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Metrics/GPI/gpi_economics.pdf'
Open PDF ... GPI-economics
Alberta-GPI-Accounts-Municipal-Hazardous-Waste-2002
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Waste/Alberta-GPI-Accounts-Municipal-Hazardous-Waste-2002.pdf'
Open PDF ... Alberta-GPI-Accounts-Municipal-Hazardous-Waste-2002
Book review ... M. Anielski ... 2007 ... The-economics-of-happiness-Building-genuine-wealth
'http://www.truevaluemetrics.org/DBpdfs/Ideas/MarkAnielski/The-economics-of-happiness-Building-genuine-wealth.pdf'
Open PDF ... The-economics-of-happiness-Building-genuine-wealth

WHAT ABOUT QUALITY OF LIFE
LESS ABOUT FINANCIAL WEALTH AND MORE ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS AND HAPPINESS
INEQUALITY
A GROWING ECONOMIC ISSUES SINCE THE 1970s ... COMPLETELY IGNORED BY POLICY MAKERS!
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Much more about INEQUALITY Open L0700-IS-SO-Inequality

NATURAL SCIENCE
A very important field of study ... but largely outmoded and increasingly wrong for the modern world
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