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Date: 2020-05-30 Page is: DBtxt001.php L0500-Intel


Intel makes reference to multiple capitals in its 2018 Annual Report and 10K

The multiple capitals referenced by Intel are as follows:
  • Financial Capital
  • Intellectual Capital
  • Manufactured Capital
  • Human Capital
  • Social and Relationship Capital
  • Natural Capital
This is not significantly different from the TVM segmentation of capitals
  • Social Capital
    • Human Capital
    • Relationship Capital
    • Locational Capital
  • Natural Capital
    • Natural Capital
  • Economic Capital
    • Financial Capital
    • Physical Capital
    • Intangible Capital
Intel ... 2018 Annual Report and 10K
Open PDF ... Intel-2018-Annual-Report.pdf
The following text is from the Intel Annual Report and 10K for 2018

We deploy various forms of capital to execute our transformation strategy in a way that seeks to reflect our corporate values, delight our customers, and create value for our stockholders. Our commitment to corporate responsibility creates value for Intel and our stockholders by helping us mitigate risks, reduce costs, build brand value, and identify new market opportunities. We set ambitious goals for our company and make strategic investments to advance progress in the areas of environmental sustainability, supply chain responsibility, diversity and inclusion, and social impact that benefit the environment and society. We empower and invest in attracting and retaining talented employees who enable the development of solutions and enhance our intellectual and manufactured capital. Our effective utilization of natural resources and focus on corporate responsibility result in trusted relationships that support the growth of our business. Through these activities, we strive to develop the world’s best semiconductors, deliver great customer experiences, efficiently manage our supply chain, improve the communities in which we operate, and, ultimately, generate financial capital that is reinvested in our business and returned to stockholders.


Cash flow and capital allocation strategy Leverage financial capital to invest in the business, acquire and integrate strategic investments, and provide returns to stockholders in the forms of dividends and share repurchases.

We strategically invest financial capital to create value for our stockholders. Over the last five years, we:
  • - Generated $113 billion cash from operating activities
  • - Generated $59 billion in free cash flow1
  • - Returned $55 billion to stockholders.
Research and development (R&D) and IP rights

Invest significantly in R&D to ensure our process and product technologies compete successfully as we pursue our strategy to make the world’s best semiconductors and realize new datacentric opportunities.
We develop IP for our platforms to enable nextgeneration products, create synergies across our businesses, provide a higher return as we expand into new markets, and establish and support our brands.
Capital assets and strategic supply chain investments
Invest timely and at a level sufficient to meet customer demand for current technologies and prepare for future technologies.
Our world-wide manufacturing scope and scale enable innovations to provide our customers and consumers with a broad range of leading-edge products in high volume.
Employees and culture
Develop the talent needed to keep the company at the forefront of innovation and create a diverse, inclusive, and safe workplace.
We attract and retain talented and engaged employees who can deliver their workplace best every day and who create the intellectual capital we rely on to develop and advance our technologies and manufacturing.
Supply chain responsibility and positive social impact
Build trusted relationships for both Intel and our stakeholders, including local communities, governments, suppliers, customers, and employees.
We collaborate on programs to empower underserved communities through education and technology, and on initiatives to advance accountability and capabilities across our global supply chain, including advancing respect for human rights.
Resource efficiency
Continually strive to reduce our environmental footprint through efficient and responsible use of natural resources and materials used to create our products.
Our proactive efforts help us mitigate climate and water risk, achieve efficiencies, lower costs, and position us to respond to the needs and expectations of our stakeholders.

1 See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” within Other Key Information.



Our financial capital allocation strategy focuses on building stockholder value. We do this by first investing in ourselves and growing our capabilities. We then look to supplement and strengthen our capabilities through acquisitions and strategic investments. And finally, we provide the return realized by these investments to our stockholders.

CASH FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES $10.1 $7.3 $9.6 $11.8 $15.2 $10.3 $11.7 $12.2 $10.3 $14.3 $20.4 Capital Investment Free Cash Flow1 $19.0 $21.8 $22.1 $29.4 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018



Our first priority is to invest in R&D and capital spending to strengthen our competitive position. We shifted our R&D focus as we transformed to a datacentric company, while efficiently maintaining our investment at approximately 20% of revenue. Our capital investment in logic (silicon wafer manufacturing of our platform products) and memory both increased in 2018 as we looked to improve supply of platform products and continued to ramp production capacity in our memory fab (Fab 68). We obtained customer prepayments of over $1.6 billion in 2018 and $1.1 billion in 2017, which helped to offset our investment in memory.


Our second financial capital allocation priority is to invest in companies around the world that will complement our strategic objectives and stimulate growth of data-centric opportunities. We look for acquisitions that further leverage and strengthen our capital and R&D investments. In 2018, we completed various small acquisitions, while leveraging Altera and Movidius to partner with customers and expand the markets we serve. Mobileye achieved record revenue, various design wins, and announced the ability to retrofit existing vehicles to deliver full autonomy. Intel Capital investments also support our strategic objectives.


Our third financial capital allocation priority is to return cash to stockholders. We achieve this through our dividend and share repurchase programs. During 2018, we paid $5.5 billion in dividends and increased our quarterly cash dividends by 10% from 2017. We also repurchased $10.7 billion in shares, up from 2017, and have reduced the level of diluted shares outstanding over time. Dividends Per Share 7% CAGR Diluted Shares Outstanding (in Millions) 2018 $1.20 4,701 2017 $1.0775 4,835 2016 $1.04 4,875 R&D AND CAPITAL INVESTMENTS $21.6 $19.5 $22.3 $24.8 $28.7 R&D Logic Memory 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 ACQUISITIONS $15.5 $14.5 $0.2 8 $0.9 $0.9 8 12 3 5 # of Acquisitions Total Spend 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 CASH TO STOCKHOLDERS $10.8 $3.0 $2.6 $3.6 $10.7 $4.4 $4.6 $4.9 $5.1 $5.5 Buyback Dividend 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 1 See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” within Other Key Information. FUNDAMENTALS OF OUR BUSINESS Our Capital 11



Every year we make a significant investment in R&D, as it is a critical factor in achieving our strategic objectives to make the world’s best semiconductors, lead the AI and autonomous revolution, and provide leading end-to-end platform solutions. Successful R&D efforts can lead to new products and technologies, or improvements to existing ones, which we seek to protect through our IP rights. We may augment our R&D initiatives by investing in or acquiring companies or entering into R&D agreements with other companies, as well as by directly purchasing or licensing technology.

We have increased our investments in R&D in each of the last five years and intensified our focus on key priorities in product technology while exiting non-core businesses, such as our divestiture of Wind River Systems, Inc. (Wind River) during 2018.


We are focusing our R&D activities on six areas of engineering to advance our product capabilities. Our goal is to improve user experiences and value at the pace of Moore’s Law through advances in performance, power, cost, connectivity, security features, form factor, and other features with each new generation of products.

Process technology. While development of next-generation manufacturing processes remains a critical and fundamental area of research, we are also pursuing innovations in packaging technology to enable new approaches to chip design. In 2018, we announced a new 3D packaging technology called “Foveros” that allows for stacking of logic chips, enabling products where input/output (I/O), static random-access memory (SRAM), and power delivery circuits can be fabricated in a base die and highperformance logic “chiplets” can be stacked on top. Together with our Embedded Multi-die Interconnect Bridge (EMIB) technology, advanced packaging allows for new hybrid chip designs that can “mix and match” different technology IP blocks, which may be manufactured on different process nodes, into a single system-in-package, enabling new design flexibility and new device form factors. “Foveros” 3D packaging technology

Architecture. We are designing products for four major computing architectures—scalar (CPU products), vector (GPU products), matrix (AI accelerator products), and spatial (FPGA products)—as we move toward a model of providing multiple “xPU” compute platforms for a more diverse era of computing. In 2018, we announced “Sunny Cove,” our next-generation CPU microarchitecture, with architectural extensions designed for special-purpose computing tasks such as AI and cryptography, among other features. We are also continuing development on our first discrete GPU.

Memory. With our Intel® 3D NAND and Intel® Optane™ technologies, we are developing products to disrupt the memory and storage hierarchy. We are shipping our Intel® Optane™ DC Persistent Memory, which combines memory-like performance with the larger capacity and persistence of storage, bringing more data closer to the CPU to help improve processing of big data sets like those used in AI and large databases. Our QLC 3D NAND technology allows users to move more data from hard disks to SSDs, giving them faster access to their data.

Interconnect. We have a broad portfolio of interconnect solutions, ranging from silicon to the data center to wireless. Our silicon photonics technology integrates lasers into silicon to create high-speed optical connections that can help remove networking bottlenecks in the data center. We are driving the 5G transition by offering products that communications service providers use to transform their networks for 5G, as well as through development of 5G modems.

Security technologies. We have made significant investments in security technologies, and built-in security features are integrated into our design process and roadmap. In the first half of 2018, we created the Intel Product Assurance and Security Group to serve as a center for security research across our products and businesses, not only to address the security issues of today, but also to monitor the evolving threat landscape and seek to continuously improve our product security in the years ahead.

Software. Software plays a critical role in unlocking the performance potential of our hardware products. Our vision is to unify our software abstractions across all of our xPU platforms. We are developing a project called OneAPI to simplify programming for developers across our CPU, GPU, FPGA, AI and other accelerator products, providing a unified portfolio of developer tools for mapping software to the hardware that can best accelerate the code.


We own and develop significant IP and related IP rights around the world that relate to our products, services, R&D, and other activities and assets. Our IP portfolio includes patents, copyrights, trade secrets, trademarks, maskwork, and other rights. We actively seek to protect our global IP rights and to deter unauthorized use of our IP and other assets. For a detailed discussion of our IP rights, see “Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing” within Other Key Information.



We are an integrated device manufacturer (IDM). Unlike many other semiconductor companies, we primarily design and manufacture our products in our own manufacturing facilities. We see our in-house manufacturing as one of our most critical forms of capital and an important advantage.


We continue to develop new generations of manufacturing process technology as we seek to realize the benefits from Moore’s Law, a law of economics predicted by Intel’s co-founder Gordon Moore more than 50 years ago. Realizing Moore’s Law results in economic benefits as we are able to either reduce a chip’s cost as we shrink its size or increase functionality and performance of a chip while maintaining the same cost with higher density. This makes possible the innovation of new products with higher performance while balancing power efficiency, cost, and size to meet customers’ needs.

As of the end of 2018, our platform products were manufactured on 300mm wafers, with the majority manufactured using our 14nm process node, and we are currently ramping our next-generation 10nm process node. We have lengthened our utilization of our 14nm process to meet an annual cadence of product introductions while developing 10nm process technology. Over the course of our 14nm process generation, we have achieved significant product performance improvement. We expect the same trend of utilizing a process node for multiple waves of products to continue as we ramp 10nm. With our 10nm process technology, we are striving for an aggressive density improvement target, beyond the density scaling we delivered with 14nm. We have experienced challenges associated with 10nm development and implementation, and announced in 2018 that volume production on our 10nm products would be delayed from the second half of 2018 into 2019. We have made good progress on improving 10nm yields in 2018, and we continue to expect volume client systems on retail shelves for the 2019 holiday season, with data center products to follow in 2020.


The map marks our manufacturing facilities and their primary functions, as well as the countries where we have a significant R&D or sales and marketing presence.

Approximately half of our wafer manufacturing is conducted within the U.S. We incur factory start-up costs as we ramp our facilities for new process technologies. We continued to ramp the 10nm process node in our Oregon and Israel locations and to expand our memory fab, Fab 68. Memory investments represented approximately 20% of total capital spending for 2018.

Our manufacturing facilities are primarily used for silicon wafer manufacturing of our platform and memory products. These facilities are built following a “copy exactly” methodology, whereby new process technologies are transferred identically from a central development fab to each manufacturing facility. This enables fast ramp of the operation as well as better quality control. These wafer fabs operate in a network of manufacturing facilities integrated as one factory to provide the most flexible supply capacity, allowing us to better analyze our production costs and adapt to changes in capacity needs.

We use a multi-source strategy for our memory business to enable a robust and flexible supply chain. Throughout 2018, we increased the memory capacity in Fab 68, where we ramped 3D NAND production. In addition, we have a supplemental supply agreement with Micron Technology, Inc. (Micron), as well as capacity from our joint venture, IM Flash Technologies, LLC (IMFT) factory in Lehi, Utah. In January 2019, Micron called our interest in IMFT. The IMFT agreement provides for supply for up to one year after the close of the transaction.

We use third-party foundries to manufacture wafers for certain components and leverage subcontractors to augment capacity to perform assembly and test in addition to our in-house manufacturing, primarily for chipsets and adjacent products.



Given the highly technical nature of our business, our success depends on our ability to attract and retain talented and skilled employees to create the technology of the future and delight our customers. Our global workforce of 107,400 is highly educated, with approximately 85% of our people working in technical roles. We invest in creating a diverse, inclusive, and safe work environment where our employees can deliver their workplace best every day. This environment fosters a rich and powerful culture that allows us to make a profound impact on the world. All employees are responsible for upholding the Intel Values, Intel Code of Conduct, and Intel Global Human Rights Principles, which form the foundation of our policies and practices. We also place value on providing a wide range of opportunities to support the ongoing career development of employees. For over a decade, we have tracked and publicly reported on key human capital metrics, including workforce demographics, diversity and inclusion data, turnover, and training data.

“In 2018, we met our U.S. diversity and inclusion goal—two years ahead of schedule. We are proud of our progress but not satisfied. We view diversity and inclusion as a business imperative that drives innovation and future growth. Every voice matters.” —Barbara Whye, Intel’s Chief Diversity and Inclusion Officer and Vice President of Human Resources


Building an inclusive workforce, industry, and ecosystem is critical to helping us drive our business forward. We committed $300 million to advance diversity and inclusion in our workforce and in the technology industry, and met our goal to achieve full representation of women and underrepresented minorities in our U.S. workforce in 2018—two years ahead of schedule. We have a long-standing commitment to inclusive workplace policies. For example, to help ensure employee concerns are openly and transparently resolved, Intel does not seek arbitration of sexual harassment and other employment claims.


We invest significant resources to develop the talent needed to keep the company at the forefront of innovation and make Intel an employer of choice. We deliver training annually and provide rotational assignment opportunities. During 2017 and 2018, we trained our managers in inclusive management practices. Over the past five years, our undesired voluntary turnover rate has been below 5%.


Our success depends on employees understanding how their work contributes to the company’s overall strategy. We use a variety of channels to facilitate open and direct communication, including open forums with executives; quarterly Organizational Health Polls; and engagement through more than 30 different employee resource groups, including the Women at Intel Network, the Network of Intel African American Employees, the Intel Latino Network, and others.


We strive to provide pay, benefits, and services that help meet the varying needs of our employees. Our generous total rewards package includes marketcompetitive pay, broad-based stock grants and bonuses, a popular Employee Stock Purchase Plan, healthcare and retirement benefits, paid time off, flexible work schedules, sabbaticals, fertility assistance, and on-site services. For more than a decade, we’ve performed an annual compensation analysis in the U.S. to ensure pay equity by gender and race/ethnicity. In 2018, we began globalizing our analytics and recently announced that we’ve achieved gender pay equity globally.


Our ultimate goal is to achieve zero serious injuries through continued investment in and focus on our core safety programs and injury-reduction initiatives. We provide access to a variety of innovative, flexible, and convenient employee health and wellness programs, including on-site health centers.

Asia Pacific United States Latin America and Canada Europe, Middle East, Africa 2018 Employees by Region 20% 3% 29% 48%



We are committed to operating with transparency, and through open and direct communication, we work to develop trusted relationships with all stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, governments, and communities. We also empower our employees to give back to the communities where we operate and engage them in corporate responsibility and sustainability initiatives. Our commitment to stakeholder collaboration and investments in social impact initiatives, including support of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, has resulted in our reputation as a leading corporate citizen, which has created value for Intel in terms of social license to operate and a positive operating environment. Each year, we receive third-party recognitions for our corporate responsibility leadership and ethical business practices. In 2018, recognitions included the Fortune 2018 Change the World List, Ethisphere’s World’s Most Ethical Companies, and Forbes/Just Capital’s America’s Most “Just” Companies.


The health of our company and local economies depend on continued investments in innovation. We provide high-skill, high-paying jobs at Intel sites around the world and also impact economies through our R&D ecosystem spending, sourcing activities, consumer spending by our employees, and tax revenue. Many of these are manufacturing and R&D jobs located in our own domestic and international factories. In addition, we make sizable capital investments and provide leadership in public-private partnerships to spur economic growth and innovation.


We are at the forefront of new technologies—such as AI, autonomous driving, and 5G wireless broadband—that are increasingly being used to empower individuals, companies, and governments around the world to solve major societal challenges. Simultaneously, we are empowering people through education and advancing social impact initiatives, helping us build trust with key external stakeholders and support the interests of our employees. Through the Intel® She Will Connect program, we have collaborated with global and local partners to empower millions of women and girls through technology skills training. Our employees actively share their expertise and skills through technology-related volunteer initiatives, and over the past 10 years have contributed more than 10 million hours of service in the communities where we operate. In celebration of our 50th anniversary, we set a goal to have 50,000 employees donate 1 million volunteer hours during 2018. We exceeded the goal with more than 68,000 employees contributing approximately 1.5 million hours.


Actively managing our supply chain creates business value for Intel and our customers by helping us reduce risks, improve product quality, achieve environmental and social goals, and raise the overall performance of our suppliers. Over the past five years, we have completed more than 500 supplier audits using the Responsible Business Alliance Code of Conduct standard and have expanded training and capacity-building programs with our suppliers. We actively collaborate with others and lead industry initiatives on key issues such as advancing responsible minerals sourcing, addressing risks of forced and bonded labor, and improving transparency around climate and water impacts in the global electronics supply chain. We also continue to work toward our goal of reaching $1 billion in annual spending with diverse-owned suppliers by 2020, and are investing in programs to create new career pathways into the technology industry.



Driving to the lowest environmental footprint possible helps us achieve efficiency, lower costs, and respond to the needs of our customers and community stakeholders. We invest in conservation projects and set company-wide environmental targets, seeking to drive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, water use, and waste generation. We focus on building energy efficiency into our products to help our customers lower their own emissions and energy costs. We also collaborate with policymakers and other stakeholders to identify opportunities to apply technology to environmental challenges such as climate change and water conservation.


We focus on reducing our own direct climate “footprint” and over the past two decades have reduced our direct emissions and electricity generated emissions. We also continue to be one of the largest voluntary corporate purchasers of green power. Since 2012, we have invested more than $200 million in energy conservation projects in our global operations, resulting in cumulative savings of more than 4 billion kilowatt hours and cost savings of approximately $500 million through the end of 2018. We also focus on increasing our “handprint”—the ways in which Intel technologies can help others reduce their footprints, and collaborate on shaping public policy responses to climate change, both at the international level and in the countries and regions where we operate.


Our engineers have long incorporated green design standards and concepts into the new construction and renovation of our facilities. We continue to be on track to meet our goal to design all new buildings to a minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification, and to date have achieved LEED certification for more than 17 million square feet, or approximately 26% of our total operational space. The Internet of Things is also expanding opportunities in the area of green buildings, including smart building energy management systems. Working with ecosystem partners, we are advancing solutions in this area, as well as incorporating these technologies into our own green building strategies. For example, one of our newest buildings, an office building in Bangalore, India that received LEED Platinum certification, is equipped with more than 9,000 sensors and has 50% lower energy demand compared to most traditional office buildings in the area.


In each of the past five years, we have recycled more than 84% of the non-hazardous waste generated in our global operations and continue to work toward our 2020 goals of recycling 90% of our non-hazardous waste and sending zero hazardous waste to landfills. Our aim is to continue to invest in reducing the amount of waste we generate while increasing the amount recycled.


Water is essential to the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use ultrapure water to remove impurities from our silicon wafers, and we use industrial and reclaimed water to run our manufacturing facility systems. Over the last two decades, our sustainable water management efforts and partnerships have enabled us to conserve billions of gallons of water and we return approximately 80% of our water back to our communities. In 2018, we continued to make progress toward our goal to restore 100% of our global water use by 2025 through funding collaborative community-based projects that will restore water in amounts equivalent to what our business consumes.


We also partner with our suppliers to manage their environmental impact, which in turn reduces our own environmental impact, lowers supply chain risk, and can decrease costs. In 2018, we again attained a Leadership “A” rating on Supplier Engagement from CDP (which evaluates global companies on their environmental disclosure) for our work to encourage our suppliers to increase the level of transparency on their climate and water footprints.


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